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Re: xplaycd works without sound output

On Mon, 3 Nov 1997, TING Ching-Hua wrote:

> Problems:
> 1. xplaycd works only in the root account.
> 2. In a user account xplaycd cannot access the CDROM. It always wants 
> to access '/dev/cdrom'. The system always complains 'Permission 
> denied'.
> 3. No sound.

Try this on your computer:

  ls -l /dev | grep cdrom


  ls -l /dev | grep audio

You'll see that root is the owner of these devices and always has all
access rights. Every user who is part of the group cdrom resp. audio has
some rights as well, because the devices have that group ownership. 

Anyone not root or not in these groups has no rights to these devices in
the default debian setup. Root (or in general, the owner of the
device/file) can change this and give all others additional rights, but
that is not good policy.

You'll want to add the users that must be able to read the raw cdrom
device (as opposed to a mounted filesystem on the cdrom) to the cdrom
group. The same with group audio.

This is done with the adduser command.

  adduser <username> <groupname>

will add <username> to <groupname> (don't actually type the <'s and >'s,
those are special characters and may confuse the shell and you.)

The permissions thing with owners and groups is really basic to unix, you
should read the manpages for adduser, chown and chmod before proceeding.

  man adduser
  man chown
  man chmod


  man man

man is your friend.



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