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re: chrooted debian install from base image (was re: instalation question: toshiba tecra 8000)

#include <hallo.h>
karsten m. self wrote on sat apr 06, 2002 um 08:52:50pm:
> this is a draft of a howto i'm working on for doing a chrooted debian 
> install.  it's a method i've found useful over the years.

Similar thoughts, http://people.debian.org/~blade/install/

> lnx-bbc is far more capable, packing about 110 mib of utilities,
> including an x server, web browsers, games, and more, onto a
> small-format cdrom.

My favorite is knoppix, a live-cd with compressed filesystem. about 2gib
data. Whatever, you should really rewritte it for Woody since Potato is
obsolete soon.

> you've now got a real debian system, though rather lean, on disk.
> chroot into it:
>     $ chroot . bin/bash

"chroot <dir>" is enough.

> ok, now, munge /etc/apt/sources.list to your preference.  if you want to
> run a 'testing' or 'unstable' system, you can make this switch now.
> after the edits (and setting the $http_proxy environment variable if
> necessary:

or call "apt-setup".

> i'd suggest a set of packages which i like installed in all instances:
>    $ apt-get install aptitude w3m screen ssh lftp vim gpw 

alternatively, "apt-cache search task", apt-get install task-...

> once your system is booted, you can try converting to a journaling
> filesystem if you prefer -- e.g.:  ext3fs, reiserfs.  i recommend ext3fs
> on filesystems < 150-200 mib, and reiserfs above this value.  reiserfs

imo: for more failsave production systems: ext3 

for home systems: 
  for essential data: / and /boot partitions, /home, and evtl. /var.
  /usr, restoreable areas and temporary data storage: reiserfs

> for ext3fs, there's no major hassle.  make sure your kernel supports
> ext3fs, and run for each partition:
>     $ tune2fs -j /dev/<partition>

you can run it without kernel support.

> ...you may also want to set the '-c' (mounts between fs checks) or '-i'
> (interval between fs checks) options, and possibly the '-m' (reserved
> blocks percentage) options.  fixme:  recommended values?

depends. i recommend a monthly check. -m value depends on the size.
reserve 50meg for rescue operations, so calculate the percentage.

>   - tar the partition to be converted to altnernate storage (if you've
>     created a fair number of partitions, you can "park" it elsewhere --
>     e.g.:  /home or /usr, usually).  for /usr, archived to /home:
>      $ tar czvf /home/usr.tar.gz /usr

no. do not use tar with this simply call. you will loose parts of
metadata, ie. directory permissions. Also note that there was a feature
(I forgot which) that tar cannot handle correctly. Should not be a
problem on most systems.  You may go better with this options: 

 --one-file-system -p -s --same-owner  --numeric-owner --sparse

>     ...and verify:
>      $ tar tzvf /home/usr.tar.gz
>    ...the exit value ($?) should be 0.

Don't forget to call this from /.

>   - Create reiserfs:
>      $ mkreiserfs /home/usr.tar.gz

If you plan to use kernel 2.4 forever, use "--format 3.6" too.

>   - Unpack the archive to the target:
>      $ cd /
>      $ tar xzvf /home/usr.tar.gz

Additional options needed, see above.

> ...repeat for each partition, and you're set.

NOTE: If you do this with /, do not forget to "--exclude=/proc"

>       $ apt-get dist-upgrade		# This should work.
>       $ apt-get dselect-upgrade		# This is what I ended up using.
>     FIXME:  ...can someone straighten me out on this?
>   - Run aptitude (far more intuitive than dselect IMVAO), and pick
>     packages.

Install it first. AFAIK available in Woody only.

> Die 3 goldenen R's bei Microsoft Systemen:
> Retry, Reboot, Reinstall .....
Die 3 F's bei Debian-Unstable: Find the bug, Fix the bug, Fire the maintainer

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