Re: xplaycd works without sound output
On Wed, 5 Nov 1997, Remco Blaakmeer wrote:
> On Tue, 4 Nov 1997, Joost Kooij wrote:
> > You'll want to add the users that must be able to read the raw cdrom
> > device (as opposed to a mounted filesystem on the cdrom) to the cdrom
> > group. The same with group audio.
> > This is done with the adduser command.
> > adduser <username> <groupname>
> > will add <username> to <groupname> (don't actually type the <'s and >'s,
> > those are special characters and may confuse the shell and you.)
> The way I read the above you would have to add a user that is in group
> cdrom, one that is in group audio, etc. This is nonsense, of course. Any
> user can be in many different groups. I don't know a standard utility for
> adding a user to a group, but doing it 'by hand' is real simple.
Well, you've read it wrong then :-)
>From the adduser manpage:
Add an existing user to an existing group
If called with two non-option arguments, adduser will add
an existing user to an existing group.
Additionally, I disagree with the methods you advocate:
> Suppose you have a user you want to add to the group 'cdrom'. As root,
> edit /etc/group and look for the line starting with the word 'cdrom'.
> After the last colon (:) on that line, you can add a comma-separated list
> of users that should be in that group. If you are using shadow passwords,
> do the same with /etc/gshadow.
> For example, I have this line in /etc/group:
> and this line in /etc/gshadow:
> You don't need to do this for a user's 'main' group (which has the same
> name as the user on a Debian system), because it is specified in
> After you have saved the file(s), the users that you have added to the
> group only need to login to become a member of the group. Already
> logged-in users need to logout and login to become a member of the group.
This is generally considered bad practice. The adduser utility (and its
friends) make all these changes in a much more controlled manner.
No problems syncing the shadowed files and much less risk of corrupting
your system by accidentally making typos.
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