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RFC: library conventions for libc5 and libc6 in hamm Take 4


I incorporated the changes mentioned by Mark Eichin.
Furthermore I noticed that there were several issues that have not
been handlied by this proposal, so I added several sections.

These tell how to handle dependences and conflicts, source packages
and bugfixes for bo. This is a lot of new stuff. Please read it
carefully and tell me where I messed up.


    -=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-= SNIP -=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-

 Debian library policy supplement draft for libc5->libc6 migration

   This document is meant to tell what a Debian package providing a
   library should do to support both libc6 (glibc2) and libc5.
   Note that these requirements are for Debian 2.0 (codename hamm).

 1.  Run time packages
 2.  Development packages
 3.  Source packages
 4.  Requirements on libraries for Debian 2.0
 5.  Conflicts and Dependencies
 6.  Handling bugfix releases for Debian 1.3 (bo)
 7.  Requirements on compiler packages 

 1. Run time packages
    A package providing a shared library has to support both C library
    packages, libc5 and libc6 based libraries. This must be done using
    two Debian packages, each depending on the correct C library
    The package naming convention currently suggests to name these
    packages as follows. Some packages (mostly from base) may use
    locations in /lib. 

       based on  | package name | library location
         libc6   |   libfoog [1]| /usr/lib/libfoo.so.<ver>
         libc5   |   libfoo     | /usr/lib/libc5-compat/libfoo.so.<ver> [2]

    If a library runtime package contains files that are needed by
    both versions of the library, a new package should be made for
    just these files that both other packages depend on.

    This package naming convention does _not_ apply if a package uses
    different sonames for libc5 and libc6 based packages

    There are two exceptions from this rule. The shared linker
    ld-linux.so.1 and the C library files libc.so.5 and libm.so.5
    should still be located in /lib, not in /lib/libc5-compat.

    Packages based on X have to use /usr/X11R6 as prefix, not /usr. 
    Note that the X libraries are designed to work with both C libraries.

  2.  Development packages

    The Debian policy requires that all files needed for compiling/linking
    other packages with the library are in a separate package, the
    development package. Up to now this package simply was called
    libfoo-dev. As packages based on libc5 and libc6 usually cannot
    use the same development files there has to be a clear statement
    how to separate these. So for now the following packages are

      based on  | package name        | hierarchy locations
      libc6     | libfoog-dev         | /usr/{lib,include}
      libc5     | libfoo-altdev       | /usr/<a>-linuxlibc1/{lib,include}
   Note that <a> usually is i486, but may not be hardcoded in
   debian/rules. It should be obtained using 
        dpkg --print-gnu-build-architecture 

   Remember that the libfoo-altdev package has to include symlinks 
   /usr/<a>-linuxlibc1/lib/libfoo.so -> /usr/lib/libc5-compat/libfoo.so.<ver>
   to enable using the shared libraries when compiling.

   All documentation that is not depending on whether the library was
   compiled for libc5 or for libc6 should be either part of the
   libfoog-dev package or be put into a separate package if it is
   large. In particular this includes manpages which _have_ to be part
   of the libfoog-dev package.

   Note that the choice to base Debian 2.0 on libc6 fixed the fact
   that the main locations will be used for libc6 packages. The
   alternate locations are used for libc5 based packages.
   This decision does not necessarily mean that by default the
   compiler uses the libc6 packages, please read section 4 for more
   information. Using a four-way approach for library locations
   (standard and alternate locations for libc6 and libc5 based
   packages) will make Debian systems inconsistent with each other,
   something we should avoid at (nearly) all costs. 

  3. Source packages

   The source package name should _not_ be modified for hamm. 

   If a bugfix for bo has to be released, use bo's source package  to
   extract the bo source and add for each hamm release a line to 
   debian/changelog stating that this release was a hamm release.
   Make your bugfix changes, including changes to the control file
   according to section 6.
   Then unpack the hamm source again, update debian/changelog and
   debian/control to figure the bo release, and release a new hamm
   package (including the bugfix, if it affects hamm as well). [3]

  4.  Requirements on libraries for Debian 2.0

   Libraries (regardless of which library they're compiled against) need
   to have runtime dependencies on one of libc, libdl or libm to enable
   the shared linker to determin which library to use for a binary.
   These runtime dependencies are _NOT_ dependencies in the Debian
   way, but dependencies generated by the linker when generating the
   shared library. See the binutils manual for more information.

   In general we want libraries compiled for libc6 to be thread-safe.
   This is, however, not practical or feasible for every library
   package. Making a library thread-safe involves quite a lot of work,
   much of it nontivial. 
   Thread-safe means that the following changes must be made to the
   library packages:

    - compile the library using -D_RENTRANT or -D_THREAD_SAFE
    - there may be no permanent data residing in the library memory that
      can be different for different threads.
      this means in the first place no static or global variables that
      are not in some way protected from access by a different threads
      via mutexes.
    - all write access to files from a library must be both protected
      using some file locking mechanism in addition to using mutexes.
    - at least some library functions must be protected from being
      used at the same time by two threads sharing the same memory
      space. This is done using mutexes. 

   As these usually are all nontrivial changes to a library if it isn't
   thread-safe already (in which case just using -D_RENTRANT should 
   be used in addition to whatever the library uses to support threads),
   I suggest that noone starts doing this without getting in contact with
   the upstream maintainer(s).

   If a library has a thread-safe version, the debian package should
   use this. The performance deficits usually are very small when not
   linking to libpthreads so only if there are serious reasons, the
   debian package may include the non-thread-safe version.

   There will be a list available that lists all libraries part of
   Debian and their current status regarding compliance with these
   standard requirements. This list will be posted regularly to
   debian-devel by Helmut Geyer <Helmut.Geyer@iwr.uni-heidelberg.de>.    

  5. Conflicts & Dependencies for hamm packages

   The libfoog package _has_ to conflict with all versions of the
   libfoo package before it was made to use the libc5-compat
   directory. Furthemore it should depend on libc6.

   The libfoog-dev package must depend on libc6-dev and the libfoog
   package of the same release. It has to conflict with the libfoo-dev

   The hamm libfoo package has to depend on libc6 and has to conflict
   with libfoo-dev and libc5-dev.
   The libfoo-altdev package has to depend on the libc5-altdev and
   libfoo package of the same release. 

  6. Handling bugfixes for Debian 1.3 (bo)

   Using the dependencies from Section 5. there will be problems with
   making bugfix releases for bo. These have to be handled carefully
   as otherwise there may be tremendous problems for people using
   hamm systems.
   As there is one package name used for both hamm and bo that stays
   the same (libfoo), we have to very careful.
   The following steps should be followed:

   i)  when making a bo bugfix release, be sure to make a hamm release
       at the same time, using a higher release number for the hamm
       release. Update the hamm package's conflicts according to
       section 5.
   ii) Any bo package for libfoo _has_ to conflict with libc6,
       libfoo-altdev and libfoog. 
   iii)The libfoo-dev package has to conflict with libc5-altdev and
       has to depend on libc5-dev.

  7. Requirements on compiler packages

   The compiler and binutils packages have to provide working
   development environments for both C libraries. Basically (that is
   from the compiler standpoint) there is no real difference between
   the two environments, only some paths and automatic definitions
   have to be changed. All this can be done (and is in fact done) by
   supplying a different specs file in a different location. 
   The gcc packages do this as follows:

   The gcc package uses libc6 by default and is installed in /usr/bin.

   The alt-gcc package uses libc5 by default and is located in 
   /usr/i486-linuxlibc1/bin. By prepending this to the path this can
   be made the default.

   These requirements are fulfilled by the current gcc packages.


 [1] the name of a library package often includes the major version
     number of the library. If so, the 'g' should come before this
     number, e.g. libgdbmg1 as package name for the libc6 based
     runtime package for libgdbm.

 [2] The location ../libc5-compat was introduced in the ldso package. As
     ldso is a package on all linus distributions we'll keep it for
     compatibility with other distributons even though 
     /usr/i486-linuxlibc1/lib would be more consistent.

 [3] An example for relevant sections of the changelogs for a bugfix
     release for both bo and hamm (with the last bo release being 
     libfoo 1.7.54-6 released on Mon, 16 Jun 1997 and the last hamm
     release being libfoo 1.7.54-8 released on Wed, 18 Jun 1997):

-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-= bo changelog =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-
libfoo (1.7.54-9) stable; urgency=low

  * fixed bug #543547884 

 -- J.D. Maintainer <jdm@debian.org>  Fri, 20 Jun 1997 08:32:03 +0200

libfoo (1.7.54-8) unstable; urgency=low

  * hamm release

 -- J.D. Maintainer <jdm@debian.org>  Fri, 20 Jun 1997 08:32:03 +0200

libfoo (1.7.54-7) unstable; urgency=low

  * hamm release

 -- J.D. Maintainer <jdm@debian.org>  Fri, 20 Jun 1997 08:32:03 +0200

libfoo (1.7.54-6) stable; urgency=low

  * added handling of bar.

 -- J.D. Maintainer <jdm@debian.org>  Mon, 16 Jun 1997 18:45:14 +0200
-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-= hamm changelog =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-
libfoo (1.7.54-10) unstable; urgency=low

  * fixed bug #543547884

 -- J.D. Maintainer <jdm@debian.org>  Fri, 20 Jun 1997 08:52:09 +0200

libfoo (1.7.54-9) stable; urgency=low

  * bo release

 -- J.D. Maintainer <jdm@debian.org>  Fri, 20 Jun 1997 08:52:09 +0200

libfoo (1.7.54-8) unstable; urgency=low

  * finally made package compliant with those strange policy for hamm

 -- J.D. Maintainer <jdm@debian.org>  Wed, 18 Jun 1997 15:34:12 +0200
Helmut Geyer                                Helmut.Geyer@iwr.uni-heidelberg.de
public PGP key available :           finger geyer@saturn.iwr.uni-heidelberg.de

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