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Re: debian-faq: notes on systemd obsolete

Hello Joost

I have a few suggestions.

On Thu, Nov 30, 2017 at 03:36:53AM +0100, Joost van Baal-Ilić wrote:
> Hi,
> I've now finally comitted some text.  I've also used
> https://bugs.debian.org/#787152 : a nice patch contributed by Alan Lee.
> I feel some proofreading is needed here.  My commit r11725 is attached.
> Bye,
> Joost

> Index: customizing.sgml
> ===================================================================
> --- customizing.sgml	(revision 11724)
> +++ customizing.sgml	(working copy)
> @@ -13,6 +13,7 @@
>  environment variable. For details, see the manual page
>  <manref name="papersize" section="5">.
> +
>  <sect id="hardwareaccess">How can I provide access to hardware peripherals,
>    without compromising security?
> @@ -34,11 +35,13 @@
>  devices when the system starts; if this happens to the hardware peripherals you
>  are interested in, you will have to adjust the rules at <tt>/etc/udev</tt>.
> +
>  <sect id="consolefont">How do I load a console font on startup the Debian way?
>  <p>The <package/kbd/ package supports this,
>  edit the <tt>/etc/kbd/config</tt> file.
> +
>  <sect id="appdefaults">How can I configure an X11 program's application
>    defaults?
> @@ -48,14 +51,81 @@
>  marked as configuration files, so their contents will be preserved during
>  upgrades.
> -<sect id="booting">Every distribution seems to have a different boot-up
> -  method.  Tell me about Debian's.
> -<p>Like all Unices, Debian boots up by executing the program <tt>init</tt>
> -<footnote>As of this writing, the unstable release for Debian GNU/Linux is
> -replacing sysvinit with <prgn/systemd/, a system and service manager for Linux. For
> -more information see <url id="https://wiki.debian.org/systemd";>.</footnote>.
> -The configuration file for <tt>init</tt> (which is <tt>/etc/inittab</tt>)
> +<sect id="booting">How does a Debian system boot?</sect>
> +
> +<p>Like all Unices, Debian boots up by executing the program <tt>init</tt>.
> +Like most Linux distributions, a default Debian system uses <tt>systemd</tt> as
> +the init implementation.  BTW: traditional System-V style init, and even more,
> +is supported too, see below.  <footnote>In 2014, Debian changed its default
How about:

 +the implementation of <tt>init</tt>. Traditional System-V style init and
 +other methods are also supported.  <footnote>In 2014, Debian changed its default

> +init system from System V init to systemd.  Debian 8 "jessie" in april 2015 was

'proper name':

+init system from System V init to systemd.  Debian 8 "jessie" in April 2015 was

> +the first release to ship with systemd as default init.  Four <url
> +id='https://www.debian.org/devel/tech-ctte#status' name='decisions'> of the
> +Debian Technical Committee were involved:
> +
> +<url id='https://lists.debian.org/20140211193904.GX24404@rzlab.ucr.edu'
> +name='Bug #727708'> 2014-02-11: "The committee decided that the default init
> +system for Linux architectures in jessie should be systemd."
> +
> +<url
> +id='https://lists.debian.org/20140801023630.GF12356@teltox.donarmstrong.com'
> +name='Bug #746715'> 2014-08-01: "The technical committee expects maintainers to
> +continue to support the multiple available init systems", and merge reasonable
> +contributions.
> +
> +<url
> +id='https://lists.debian.org/20141116001628.GO32192@teltox.donarmstrong.com'
> +name='Bug #746578'> 2014-11-15: "The committee decided that systemd-shim should
> +be the first listed alternative dependency of libpam-systemd instead of
> +systemd-sysv." This decision made it easier to keep running a non-systemd
> +Debian system.
> +
> +<url
> +id='https://lists.debian.org/21592.61064.527547.410074@chiark.greenend.org.uk'
> +name='Bug #762194'>2017-11-04: "On automatic init system switching on upgrade"
> +
> +</footnote>
> +
> +<p>Instead of <i>runlevels</i>, as used on traditional
> +System-V style Unix systems, systemd provides <i>targets</i>.  You may check
> +the default target by the command

This seems in need of a little "intro" phrase:

 +<p>To control the order in which service are started, traditional System-V style
 +Unix systems use <i>runlevels</i>. Instead of this, systemd provides <i>targets</i>.
 +To display the default target to which systemd will bring the system,
 +run the command

> +
> +  <example>systemctl get-default</example>
> +
> +<p>During boot-up, systemd start the services or other targets listed in the

+<p>During boot-up, systemd starts the services or other targets listed in the

> +default target file <tt>/lib/systemd/system/default.target</tt>.  The files for
> +these services and targets are installed during Debian package installation.

Missing text?:

 +Usually, a package providing a service controlled by systemd
 +will <i>enable</i> it at installation time.

> +If you explicitly do not wish to run a packages service during boot-up, instead
> +of removing the installed package, you can run the command
> +
> +  <example>systemctl disable <i>package</i>.service</example>
> +
> +where <i>package</i>.service is the service file installed in
> +<tt>/lib/systemd/system</tt>.</p>
> +
> +<p>Service file <tt>/lib/systemd/rc.local.service</tt> provides an easy way to

concept: we seem to be using italics for those

 +<p>The <i>service file</i> <tt>/lib/systemd/rc.local.service</tt> provides an easy way to

> +run customized scripts in the file <tt>/etc/rc.local</tt> after boot-up,
> +similar to what's offered on Debian systems running System-V style init.
> +Beware: this script will fail if it has interaction to the console such as

 +Beware: this script will fail if it tries to interact with the console, such as

> +asking for a user password or if it tries to clear the screen.</p>
> +
> +<p>You can check the status of any service by the command
> +
> +  <example>systemctl status package.service</example>
> +
> +.</p>
> +
> +<p>For more information on systemd for Debian, see <nurl

 +<p>For more information on systemd for Debian, see <url

> +id="https://wiki.debian.org/systemd";>.
> +
> +
> +<sect id="sysvinit">And how about Debian and traditional System V init</sect>
> +
> + other ways of booting?</sect>
> +
> +Debian supports booting using traditional System V init, via the sysvinit-core package.
> +
> +The configuration file for System V <tt>init</tt> (which is <tt>/etc/inittab</tt>)
>  specifies that the first script to be executed should be
>  <tt>/etc/init.d/rcS</tt>.  This script runs all of the scripts in
>  <tt>/etc/rcS.d/</tt> by forking subprocesses 
> @@ -106,42 +176,18 @@
>  <p>Note that <prgn/invoke-rc.d/ should not be used to call the 
>  <tt>/etc/init.d/</tt> scripts, <prgn/service/ should be used instead.
> -<sect id="custombootscripts">What other facilities are provided
> -  to customize the boot process besides
> -  <tt>rc.local</tt>?
> -<p>The <tt>rc.local</tt> script is executed at the end of each multiuser
> -runlevel. In Debian it is configured to do nothing. This provides
> -customisation of the boot process, but might not be sufficient
> -for all situations.
> +<sect id='altboot'>And are there yet other ways of booting a Debian system?</sect>
> -<p>Suppose a system needs to execute script <tt>foo</tt> on start-up,
> -or on entry to a particular (System V) runlevel.  Then the system
> -administrator should:
> -<list>
> -  <item>Enter the script <tt>foo</tt> into the directory <tt>/etc/init.d/</tt>.
> -  <item>Run the Debian command <tt>update-rc.d</tt> with appropriate
> -  arguments, to specify which runlevels should start the service, and which
> -  runlevels should stop the service.
> -  <item>Consider rebooting the system to check that the service starts 
> -  correctly (assuming that you've asked for it to be started in the
> -  default runlevel).  Otherwise, manually start it by running
> -  `<tt>/etc/init.d/foo start</tt>'.
> -</list>
> +<p>If you do like System V init, but don't like the /etc/rc?.d/* links, you
> +could install the <package/file-rc/ package.  That will convert the links into
> +one single configuration file /etc/runlevel.conf instead.</p>
> -<p>One might, for example, cause the script <tt>foo</tt> to execute at
> -boot-up, by putting it in <tt>/etc/init.d/</tt> and running
> -<tt>update-rc.d foo defaults 19</tt>.  The argument `<tt>defaults</tt>' refers
> -to the default runlevels, which means (at least in absence of any LSB comment
> -block to the contrary) to start the service in runlevels 2 through 5,
> -and to stop the service in runlevels 0, 1 and 6.
> -(Any LSB Default-Start and Default-Stop directives in <tt>foo</tt> take
> -precedence when using the sysv-rc version of update-rc.d, but are
> -ignored by file-rc's variant (v0.8.10 and higher) of update-rc.d.)
> -The argument `<tt>19</tt>' ensures that <tt>foo</tt> is called after all
> -scripts whose number is less than 19 have completed, and before all scripts
> -whose number is 20 or greater.
> +<p>If you like neither System V nor systemd, you might like <package/openrc/ or
> +<package/runit/ or <package/daemontools/.</p>
> +
> +
>  <sect id="interconffiles">How does the package management system deal with
>    packages that contain configuration files for other packages?

Kind regards

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