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Password encrypting

I wonder how password encryption works
At first I thought that thist looks smth like this
Encrypted passwords are kept in /etc/shadow
When I want to log in . My password is being crypted and then compared
with this in /etc/shadow one.
This happens because there is no (back-working) crypt function, this
normal i think:)

But i did somethink like this
Using makepasswd, i generated five times encrypted password test

makepasswd --clearfrom=test --crypt
test       og3NysIaK3F2Q
test       Xt9Haq8tgqcBs
test       zAh5NM1W8IxC6
test       Rm.d1pCc..Lfc
test       xSOOXEb6t2r6E

Values of encrypted passwords are diffrent each time I use makepasswd. 
So, how the login program check my  password?
I tested if I can login to the system for each of this values ( I write it
down to the /etc/shadow )  and I could.

HOW does it works ?


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