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Falcon P.L. license (ITP:Bug#460591)

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As suggested by Mr. Paul Wise, I am writing here to have the Falcon
Programming Language License by Debian.

The license is tightly based on Apache 2, with extra clarifications
and permissions. Rationale behind this license is that of provide a
license defining and clarifying limits between "embedding
applications" (that is, an application USING the scripting language)
and "derived works" (that is, re-works of the language). Also the
license clears the field from ambiguity about usability and freedom of
code generated and run by the Virtual Machine.

I am going through this because, after searching for a license
providing those guarantees to language users, I have found none. Other
licenses in the field are either left ambiguous, or are special
purpose language specific license (along OSI guidelines) or are basic
licenses with exceptions (i.e. LGPL "with embedding exception"). I
thought that, instead of smuggling in a new license under the disguise
of a well knonw one with "exceptions", Falcon users and the the
community as a whole would have had benefits from a generic, open
source license which is aimed to define those applications meant to
work symbiotically with other ones, as i.e. scripting languages. In
fact, FPLL is not a languge-specific license and may be adopted by all
the applications that fall in this class.

I am submitting the license to OSI for certification as soon as the
lawyer I hired will provide me with a legal advice. In the meanwhile,
I have opened an ITP bug, for which Debian Legal clearance is needed.

Here follows the text of the license.

Giancarlo Niccolai.


    Falcon Programming Language License

Version 1.0, February 2005


   1. *Definitions*.
          * "License" shall mean the terms and conditions for use,
            reproduction, and distribution as defined by Sections 1
            through 9 of this document.
          * "Licensor" shall mean the copyright owner or entity
            authorized by the copyright owner that is granting the
          * "Legal Entity" shall mean the union of the acting entity
            and all other entities that control, are controlled by, or
            are under common control with that entity. For the
            purposes of this definition, "control" means (i) the
            power, direct or indirect, to cause the direction or
            management of such entity, whether by contract or
            otherwise, or (ii) ownership of fifty percent (50%) or
            more of the outstanding shares, or (iii) beneficial
            ownership of such entity.
          * "You" (or "Your") shall mean an individual or Legal Entity
            exercising permissions granted by this License.
          * "Source" form shall mean the preferred form for making
            modifications, including but not limited to software
            source code and example code.
          * "Object" form shall mean any form resulting from
            mechanical transformation or translation of a Source form,
            including but not limited to compiled object code,
            generated documentation, and conversions to other media types.
          * "Work" shall mean the work of authorship, whether in
            Source or Object form, made available under the License,
            as indicated by a copyright notice that is included in or
            attached to the work (an example is provided in the
            Appendix below).
          * "Derivative Works" shall mean any work, whether in Source
            or Object form, that is based on (or derived from) the
            Work and for which the editorial revisions, annotations,
            elaborations, or other modifications represent, as a
            whole, an original work of authorship. For the purposes of
            this License, Derivative Works shall not include works
            that remain separable from, or merely link (or bind by
            name) to the interfaces of, the Work and Derivative Works
          * "Embedding Works" shall mean any work, whether in Source
            or Object form, that links (or binds by name) to the
            interface of the Work and Derivative Works.
          * "Scripts" shall mean any work, weather in Source or Object
            form, that is expressed through the grammar rules which
            are known by the Work.
          * "Users" shall mean any person that uses, directly or
            indirectly, all or any of the Work, the Derivative Works,
            the Embedding Works or the Scripts.
          * "Contribution" shall mean any work of authorship,
            including the original version of the Work and any
            modifications or additions to that Work or Derivative
            Works thereof, that is intentionally submitted to Licensor
            for inclusion in the Work by the copyright owner or by an
            individual or Legal Entity authorized to submit on behalf
            of the copyright owner. For the purposes of this
            definition, "submitted" means any form of electronic,
            verbal, or written communication sent to the Licensor or
            its representatives, including but not limited to
            communication on electronic mailing lists, source code
            control systems, and issue tracking systems that are
            managed by, or on behalf of, the Licensor for the purpose
            of discussing and improving the Work, but excluding
            communication that is conspicuously marked or otherwise
            designated in writing by the copyright owner as "Not a
          * "Contributor" shall mean Licensor and any individual or
            Legal Entity on behalf of whom a Contribution has been
            received by Licensor and subsequently incorporated within
            the Work.
   2. *Grant of Copyright License*. Subject to the terms and
      conditions of this License, each Contributor hereby grants to
      You a perpetual, worldwide, non-exclusive, no-charge,
      royalty-free, irrevocable copyright license to reproduce,
      prepare Derivative Works of, prepare Embedding Works, prepare
      Scripts, publicly display, publicly perform, sublicense, and
      distribute the Work and such Derivative Works in Source or
      Object form.
   3. *Grant of Patent License*. Subject to the terms and conditions
      of this License, each Contributor hereby grants to You a
      perpetual, worldwide, non-exclusive, no-charge, royalty-free,
      irrevocable (except as stated in this section) patent license to
      make, have made, use, offer to sell, sell, import, and otherwise
      transfer the Work, where such license applies only to those
      patent claims licensable by such Contributor that are
      necessarily infringed by their Contribution(s) alone or by
      combination of their Contribution(s) with the Work to which such
      Contribution(s) was submitted. If You institute patent
      litigation against any entity (including a cross-claim or
      counterclaim in a lawsuit) alleging that the Work or a
      Contribution incorporated within the Work constitutes direct or
      contributory patent infringement, then any patent licenses
      granted to You under this License for that Work shall terminate
      as of the date such litigation is filed.
   4. *Redistribution of Work and Derivative Works*. You may reproduce
      and distribute copies of the Work or Derivative Works thereof in
      any medium, with or without modifications, and in Source or
      Object form, provided that You meet the following conditions:
         1. You must give any other recipients of the Work or
            Derivative Works a copy of this License; and
         2. You must cause any modified files to carry prominent
            notices stating that You changed the files; and
         3. You must retain, in the Source form of any Derivative
            Works that You distribute, all copyright, patent,
            trademark, and attribution notices from the Source form of
            the Work, excluding those notices that do not pertain to
            any part of the Derivative Works; and
         4. You must state in the Source Form and in the documentation
            of any Derivative Work the fact that such work is a
            derivation of the Work, and include a copy of the Work in
            its Source form or provide directions on how to obtain a
            copy of the Work in its Source form; and
         5. The Derivative Works are distributed under the terms of
            this License, or under terms that do not cause
            infringement of this License.
   5. *Distribution of Embedding Works and Scripts*. You may produce
      and distribute any Embedding Work or Scripts thereof in any
      medium, in Source or Object form, provided You meet the
      following conditions:
         1. The Embedding Works and Scripts are distributed under the
            term of this License, or the application of another
            License is explicitly stated in the documentation of the
            Embedding Works and Scripts or included in the Source form
            of the Embedding Works and Scripts; and
         2. The Embedding Works carry a prominent notice in their
            documentation, or when not applicable, in any place that
            the Users are exposed to, about the fact that the Work is
            embedded, along with a general statement about the task
            that the Work is performing in the Embedding Works; and
         3. If the Source form of Embedding Works is distributed or
            made available to the Users in any medium and by any
            means, the portions of the Source form that causes the
            Work to be embedded must carry a prominent notice about
            this fact, along with a general statement about the task
            that the Work is performing in the Embedded Works; and
         4. If the Source form of Scripts is not distributed nor made
            available by any mean to the Users, a prominent notice
            about the fact that the Scripts have been written in the
            Language must be presented in a place which the Users are
            exposed to.
   6. *Submission of Contributions*. Unless You explicitly state
      otherwise, any Contribution intentionally submitted for
      inclusion in the Work by You to the Licensor shall be under the
      terms and conditions of this License, without any additional
      terms or conditions. Notwithstanding the above, nothing herein
      shall supersede or modify the terms of any separate license
      agreement You may have executed with Licensor regarding such
   7. *Trademarks*. This License does not grant permission to use the
      trade names, trademarks, service marks, or product names of the
      Licensor, except as required for reasonable and customary use in
      describing the origin of the Work and reproducing the content of
      the NOTICE file.
   8. *Disclaimer of Warranty*. Unless required by applicable law or
      agreed to in writing, Licensor provides the Work (and each
      Contributor provides its Contributions) on an "AS IS" BASIS,
      implied, including, without limitation, any warranties or
      FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. You are solely responsible for
      determining the appropriateness of using or redistributing the
      Work and assume any risks associated with Your exercise of
      permissions under this License.
   9. *Limitation of Liability*. In no event and under no legal
      theory, whether in tort (including negligence), contract, or
      otherwise, unless required by applicable law (such as deliberate
      and grossly negligent acts) or agreed to in writing, shall any
      Contributor be liable to You for damages,including any direct,
indirect, special, incidental, or consequential damages of any
      character arising as a result of this License or out of the use
      or inability to use the Work (including but not limited to
      damages for loss of goodwill, work stoppage, computer failure or
      malfunction, or any and all other commercial damages or losses),
      even if such Contributor has been advised of the possibility of
      such damages.
  10. *Accepting Warranty or Additional Liability*. While
      redistributing the Work or Derivative Works thereof, You may
      choose to offer, and charge a fee for, acceptance of support,
      warranty, indemnity, or other liability obligations and/or
      rights consistent with this License. However, in accepting such
      obligations, You may act only on Your own behalf and on Your
      sole responsibility, not on behalf of any other Contributor, and
      only if You agree to indemnify, defend, and hold each
      Contributor harmless for any liability incurred by, or claims
      asserted against, such Contributor by reason of Your accepting
      any such warranty or additional liability.

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