You might look at the rsalabs web site; there's an "introduction to asn.1" document there which is quite thorough, despite the name, though if I remember correctly it only describes one of BER or DER, whichever PKCS actually use. It might be worth a look. -- TO UNSUBSCRIBE FROM THIS MAILING LIST: e-mail the word "unsubscribe" to email@example.com . Trouble? e-mail to firstname.lastname@example.org .