Welcome to Debian!
You're among friends!
Just a few questions to make sure we're all on the same place in figuring out what's going on with your Debian.
1) Did you install using the Live Debian or the Installer version of Debian? As far as I know, the Installer version of Debian is the one that installs console accessibility. Maybe someone on the list can correct me as I've always used that version because it installs using text mode and I know right away if I can hear the console speech.
I suggest that people especially those using old hardware that might still be non 64 bit hardware using the multi-arch with firmware iso that's located here:
So many of us these days are using laptops with proprietary hardware for the Internet and video that isn't in the regular Debian iso. This iso above will install on an old 32 bit computer or a modern 64 bit computer.
Test the console speech with this command:
Do you hear anything?
If not, give this command so we can see what speech related files you have installed on your system:
As your regular user give this command:
apt search speech | grep installed > speechfiles.txt
Send us the speechfiles.txt which this command produced in your home folder.