Ah, this information is helping! The following options allow me to get to where what should be the login screen appears, but it is black with a purple cursor:
From there I can press Ctrl-Alt-F1 and get to a command prompt.
I also tried these commands but neither of them change anything:
Maybe I can try them all together? I don't know. I feel like I am getting closer, though. It is a problem with the Nouveau driver.