Install Manual Updates Phase 2
Changes to Installation Manual for Woody, Phase 2.
Attached is install-upd0701.dif, kernel.sgml and boot-new.sgml
Added 2 new files:
has steps from dbootstrap Install Op System thru Configure Base
has steps from dbootstrap Make Bootable thru Log In
Removed dbootstrap.sgml (its contents were distributed to
rescue-boot.sgml, partitioning.sgml, and the two new files.
added the two new chapters and their references.
deleted the dbootstrap chapter and its reference.
added mips, mipsel, ia64 arches to the list of new ones
removed powerpc from new list
moved footnote definition of NewWorld here from partitioning
added Intro to dbootstrap thru Last Chance! from dbootstrap.sgml
this is now just Debian partitioning stuff
moved in sections from dbootstrap.sgml, Partition a Hard Disk
thru Mounting Partitions not Supported by dbootstrap
reorganized to talk about planning first, then partitioning programs,
then specifics of usage
added list of FHS directories
added link to partition examples
administrivia.sgml, hardware.sgml, preparing.sgml,
changed -- in text to —
removed a few duplicated urls, added link for partition examples
RCS file: /cvs/debian-boot/boot-floppies/documentation/install.sgml,v
retrieving revision 1.88
diff -u -r1.88 install.sgml
--- install.sgml 2001/06/28 16:03:27 1.88
+++ install.sgml 2001/07/02 03:33:55
@@ -11,11 +11,8 @@
<!entity ch-inst-methods SYSTEM "en/inst-methods.sgml">
<!entity ch-rescue-boot SYSTEM "en/rescue-boot.sgml">
<!entity ch-partitioning SYSTEM "en/partitioning.sgml">
- <!entity ch-dbootstrap SYSTEM "en/dbootstrap.sgml">
- <!-- entity ch-kernel SYSTEM "en/kernel.sgml" -->
- <!-- entity ch-make-bootable SYSTEM "en/make-bootable.sgml" -->
- <!-- entity ch-boot-new SYSTEM "en/boot-new.sgml" -->
- <!-- entity ch-task-pkg SYSTEM "en/task-pkg.sgml" -->
+ <!entity ch-kernel SYSTEM "en/kernel.sgml">
+ <!entity ch-boot-new SYSTEM "en/boot-new.sgml">
<!entity ch-post-install SYSTEM "en/post-install.sgml">
<!entity ch-tech-info SYSTEM "en/tech-info.sgml">
<!entity ch-appendix SYSTEM "en/appendix.sgml">
@@ -136,12 +133,9 @@
-<!-- &ch-kernel; -->
-<!-- &ch-make-bootable; -->
-<!-- &ch-boot-new; -->
-<!-- &ch-task-pkg; -->
RCS file: /cvs/debian-boot/boot-floppies/documentation/urls.ent,v
retrieving revision 1.68
diff -u -r1.68 urls.ent
--- urls.ent 2001/06/28 16:03:27 1.68
+++ urls.ent 2001/07/02 03:33:56
@@ -141,21 +141,13 @@
<!entity url-kernel-traffic "http://kt.linuxcare.com/kernel-traffic/">
<!-- Introductions to the FSF and GNU Project -->
-<!entity url-fsf-intro "http://www.gnu.org/fsf/fsf.html">
-<!entity url-gnu-intro "http://www.gnu.org/">
<!-- Linux History page -->
<!entity url-linux-history "http://www.li.org/linuxhistory.php">
-<!-- Linux Standard Base -->
-<!entity url-lsb-org "http://www.linuxbase.org/">
-<!-- Filesystem Hierarchy Standard -->
-<!entity url-fhs-home "http://www.pathname.com/fhs/">
<!-- Introductions to the FSF and GNU Project -->
<!entity url-fsf-intro "http://www.fsf.org/fsf/fsf.html">
-<!entity url-gnu-intro "http://www.fsf.org/gnu/the-gnu-project.html">
+<!entity url-gnu-intro "http://www.gnu.org/gnu/the-gnu-project.html">
<!-- Kernel archives -->
<!entity url-kernel-org "http://www.kernel.org/">
@@ -274,6 +266,8 @@
<![ %lang-ja [ <!entity url-partition-howto
<!entity url-partition-howto "&url-ldp;HOWTO/mini/Partition/">
+<!entity url-partition-examples "http://www.kernel-panic.org/presentations/part_howto/part-page7.html">
<![ %lang-ja [ <!entity url-lilo-howto
RCS file: /cvs/debian-boot/boot-floppies/documentation/en/administrivia.sgml,v
retrieving revision 1.10
diff -u -r1.10 administrivia.sgml
--- en/administrivia.sgml 2000/06/24 23:55:09 1.10
+++ en/administrivia.sgml 2001/07/02 03:33:56
@@ -16,7 +16,7 @@
number of SGML features, such as entities and marked sections. These
play a role akin to variables and conditionals in programming
languages. The SGML source to this document contains information for
-each different architecture -- marked sections are used to isolate
+each different architecture — marked sections are used to isolate
certain bits of text as architecture-specific.
RCS file: /cvs/debian-boot/boot-floppies/documentation/en/hardware.sgml,v
retrieving revision 1.25
diff -u -r1.25 hardware.sgml
--- en/hardware.sgml 2001/06/28 23:21:58 1.25
+++ en/hardware.sgml 2001/07/02 03:49:18
@@ -66,6 +66,14 @@
HP PA/RISC | hppa
- PA/RISC 1.1 |
- PA/RISC 2.0 |
+Mips | mips
+Mipsel | mipsel
+IA-64 | ia64
@@ -74,10 +82,10 @@
Debian-supported architectures take a look at the <url
id="http://&www-debian-org;/ports/" name="Debian-Ports"> pages.
-<![ %hppa %arm [
+<![ %hppa %mips %mipsel %ia64 %arm [
-This is the first official release of &debian; for the PA/RISC
-archictecture. We feel that it has proven itself sufficiently to be
+This is the first official release of &debian; for the &arch-title;
+architecture. We feel that it has proven itself sufficiently to be
released. However, because it has not had the exposure (and hence
testing by users) that some other architectures have had, you may
encounter a few bugs. Use our <url id="&url-bts;" name="Bug Tracking
@@ -323,8 +331,8 @@
<![ %supports-smp [
-Multi-processor support -- also called ``symmetric multi-processing''
-or SMP -- is supported for this architecture. However, the standard
+Multi-processor support — also called ``symmetric multi-processing''
+or SMP — is supported for this architecture. However, the standard
Debian &release; kernel image does not support SMP. This
should not prevent installation, since the standard,
non-SMP kernel should boot on SMP systems; the kernel will simply use
@@ -392,7 +400,7 @@
<![ %supports-nfsroot [ Diskless installation, using network booting
from a local area network and NFS-mounting of all local filesystems,
-is another option -- you'll probably need at least 16MB of RAM for a
+is another option — you'll probably need at least 16MB of RAM for a
After the operating system kernel is installed, you can install the
@@ -673,7 +681,7 @@
for their hardware. Others won't allow us access to the
documentation without a non-disclosure agreement that would prevent us
from releasing the Linux source code. One example is the IBM laptop
-DSP sound system used in recent ThinkPad systems -- some of these
+DSP sound system used in recent ThinkPad systems — some of these
systems also couple the sound system to the modem.
<![ %m68k [ Another example is the proprietary hardware in the older
RCS file: /cvs/debian-boot/boot-floppies/documentation/en/inst-methods.sgml,v
retrieving revision 1.65
diff -u -r1.65 inst-methods.sgml
--- en/inst-methods.sgml 2001/06/29 03:44:56 1.65
+++ en/inst-methods.sgml 2001/07/02 03:34:01
@@ -182,8 +182,13 @@
<![ %powerpc [
It cannot access files on an HFS+ filesystem. MacOS
-System 8.1 and above may use HFS+ filesystems; NewWorld PowerMacs all
-use HFS+. To determine whether your existing filesystem is HFS+,
+System 8.1 and above may use HFS+ filesystems; NewWorld <footnote>The so called
+`NewWorld' PowerMacs are any <em>PowerMac</em>s in translucent colored
+plastic cases. That includes all <em>iMac</em>s, <em>iBook</em>s,
+<em>G4</em>s, blue colored <em>G3</em>s, and most <em>PowerBook</em>s
+manufactured in and after 1999. The `NewWorld' PowerMacs are also
+known for using the `ROM in RAM' system for MacOS.</footnote> PowerMacs all
+use HFS+ by default. To determine whether your existing filesystem is HFS+,
select <tt>Get Info</tt> for the volume in question. HFS filesystems
appear as <tt>Mac OS Standard</tt>, while HFS+ filesystems say <tt>Mac
OS Extended</tt>. ]]>
RCS file: /cvs/debian-boot/boot-floppies/documentation/en/partitioning.sgml,v
retrieving revision 1.31
diff -u -r1.31 partitioning.sgml
--- en/partitioning.sgml 2001/06/28 16:03:34 1.31
+++ en/partitioning.sgml 2001/07/02 03:34:02
@@ -3,14 +3,20 @@
<chapt id="partitioning">Partitioning for Debian
- <sect id="partition-intro">Background
+The &MSG-PARTITION-DISK; menu item presents you with a list of disk
+drives you can partition, and runs a partitioning application. You
+must create at least one ``Linux native'' (type 83) disk partition,
+and you probably want at least one ``Linux swap`` (type 82) partition.
+ <sect id="partition-intro">Deciding on Debian Partitions and Sizes
At a bare minimum, GNU/Linux needs one partition for itself. You can
have a single partition containing the entire operating system,
applications, and your personal files. Most people feel that a
separate swap partition is also a necessity, although it's not
strictly true. ``Swap'' is scratch space for an operating system,
-which allows the system to use cheap disk storage as ``virtual
+which allows the system to use disk storage as ``virtual
memory''. By putting swap on a separate partition, Linux can make much
more efficient use of it. It is possible to force Linux to use a
regular file as swap, but it is not recommended.
@@ -49,26 +55,41 @@
big, you will be wasting space that could be used elsewhere. Disk
space is cheap nowadays, but why throw your money away?
- <sect1 id="directory-tree">The Directory Tree
+ <sect id="directory-tree">The Directory Tree
-The following list describes some important directories. It should
-help you to find out what your partitioning scheme should be.
+Debian Linux adheres to the <url id="&url-fhs-home;" name="Filesystem
+Hierarchy Standard"> for directory and file naming. This standard
+allows users and software programs to predict the location of files
+and directories. The root level directory is represented simply by the
+slash <file>/</file>. At the root level, all Debian systems include
+ bin Essential command binaries
+ boot Static files of the boot loader
+ dev Device files
+ etc Host-specific system configuration
+ home User home directories
+ lib Essential shared libraries and kernel modules
+ mnt Mount point for mounting a filesystem temporarily
+ proc Virtual directory for system information
+ root Home directory for the root user
+ sbin Essential system binaries
+ tmp Temporary files
+ usr Secondary hierarchy
+ var Variable data
+<!-- Apparently we don't conform with fhs here: -->
+<!-- opt Add-on application software packages -->
+The following is a list of important considerations regarding
+directories and partitions.
-<file>/</file>: root represents the starting point of the directory
-hierarchy. It contains the essential programs that the computer can
-boot. This includes the kernel, system libraries, configuration files
-in <file>/etc</file> and various other needed files. Typically 30-50
-MB are needed but this may vary.
-Note: do <em>not</em> partition <file>/etc</file>, <file>/bin</file>,
-<file>/sbin</file>, <file>/lib</file> or <file>/dev</file> as its own
-partition; you won't be able to boot.
-<file>/dev</file>: this directory contains the various device files
-which are interfaces to the various hardware components.
-For more information see <ref id="disk-naming">.
+The root partition <file>/</file> must always physically contain
+<file>/etc</file>, <file>/bin</file>, <file>/sbin</file>,
+<file>/lib</file> and <file>/dev</file>, otherwise you won't be able
+to boot. Typically 30-50 MB are needed for the root partition, but
+this may vary.
<file>/usr</file>: all user programs (<file>/usr/bin</file>), libraries
(<file>/usr/lib</file>), documentation (<file>/usr/share/doc</file>),
@@ -102,7 +123,7 @@
<![ %i386 [
- <sect1>PC Disk Limitations
+ <sect>PC Disk Limitations
The PC BIOS generally adds additional constraints for disk
partitioning. There is a limit to how many ``primary'' and
@@ -167,6 +188,60 @@
+ <sect>Recommended Partitioning Scheme
+As described above, you should definitely have a separate smaller root
+partition, and a larger <file>/usr</file> partition, if you have the
+space. For examples, see below. For most users, these two partitions
+plus the swap partition are sufficient. This is especially appropriate
+when you have a single small disk, since breaking out lots of
+partitions can waste space.
+You might need a separate <file>/usr/local</file> partition if you
+plan to install many programs that are not part of the Debian
+distribution. If your machine will be a mail server, you might need
+to make <file>/var/spool/mail</file> a separate partition. Often,
+putting <file>/tmp</file> on its own partition, for instance 20 to
+32MB, is a good idea. If you are setting up a server with lots of
+user accounts, it's generally good to have a separate, large
+<file>/home</file> partition. In general, the partitioning situation
+varies from computer to computer depending on its uses.
+For very complex systems, you should see the <url
+id="&url-multidisk-howto;" name="Multi Disk HOWTO">. This contains
+in-depth information, mostly of interest to ISPs and people setting up
+With respect to the issue of swap partition size, there are many
+views. One rule of thumb which works well is to use as much swap as
+you have system memory. It also shouldn't be smaller than 16MB, in
+most cases. Of course, there are exceptions to these rules. If you
+are trying to solve 10000 simultaneous equations on a machine with
+256MB of memory, you may need a gigabyte (or more) of swap. <![ %m68k
+[ On the other hand, Atari Falcons and Macs feel pain when swapping,
+so instead of making a large swap partition, get as much RAM as
+On 32-bit architectures (i386, m68k, 32-bit SPARC, and PowerPC), the
+maximum size of a swap partition is 2GB (on Alpha and SPARC64, it's so
+large as to be virtually unlimited). This should be enough for nearly
+any installation. However, if your swap requirements are this high,
+you should probably try to spread the swap across different disks
+(also called ``spindles'') and, if possible, different SCSI or IDE
+channels. The kernel will balance swap usage between multiple swap
+partitions, giving better performance.
+As an example, one of the authors' home machine has 32MB of RAM and a
+1.7GB IDE drive on <file>/dev/hda</file>. There is a 500MB partition
+for another operating system on <file>/dev/hda1</file> (should have
+made it 200MB as it never gets used). A 32MB swap partition is used on
+<file>/dev/hda3</file> and the rest (about 1.2GB on
+<file>/dev/hda2</file>) is the Linux partition.
+For more examples, see <url id="&url-partition-examples;"
<sect id="disk-naming">Device Names in Linux
Linux disks and partition names may be different from other operating
@@ -226,8 +301,8 @@
Note that if you have two SCSI host bus adapters (i.e., controllers),
the order of the drives can get confusing. The best solution in this
-case is to watch the boot messages, assuming you know yourself the
+case is to watch the boot messages, assuming you know the
+drive models and/or capacities.
<![ %i386 [
@@ -259,26 +334,140 @@
+ <sect id="partition-programs">Debian Partitioning Programs
+Several varieties of partitioning programs have been adapted by Debian
+developers to work on various types of hard disks and computer
+architectures. Following is a list of the program(s) applicable for
+<![ %fdisk.txt [ <tag><prgn>fdisk</prgn><item> The original Linux disk
+partitioner, good for gurus; read the <url id="man-fdisk" name="fdisk
+Be careful if you have existing FreeBSD partitions on your machine.
+The installation kernels include support for these partitions, but the
+way that <prgn>fdisk</prgn> represents them (or not) can make the
+device names differ. See the <url id="&url-linux-freebsd;"
+name="Linux+FreeBSD HOWTO">. ]]>
+<![ %cfdisk.txt [ <tag><prgn>cfdisk</prgn><item> A simple-to-use,
+full-screen disk partitioner for the rest of us; read the <url
+id="man-cfdisk" name="cfdisk manual page">.
+Note that <prgn>cfdisk</prgn> doesn't understand FreeBSD partitions at
+all, and, again, device names may differ as a result.]]>
+<![ %atari-fdisk.txt [ <tag><prgn>atari-fdisk</prgn><item> Atari-aware
+version of <prgn>fdisk</prgn>; read the <url id="atari-fdisk.txt"
+name="atari-fdisk manual page">. ]]>
+<![ %amiga-fdisk.txt [ <tag><prgn>amiga-fdisk</prgn><item> Amiga-aware
+version of <prgn>fdisk</prgn>; read the <url id="amiga-fdisk.txt"
+name="amiga-fdisk manual page">. ]]>
+<![ %mac-fdisk.txt [ <tag><prgn>mac-fdisk</prgn><item> Mac-aware
+version of <prgn>fdisk</prgn>; read the <url id="mac-fdisk.txt"
+name="mac-fdisk manual page">. ]]>
+<![ %pmac-fdisk.txt [ <tag><prgn>pmac-fdisk</prgn><item> PowerMac-aware
+version of <prgn>fdisk</prgn>, also used by BVM and Motorola VMEbus systems;
+read the <url id="pmac-fdisk.txt" name="pmac-fdisk manual page">. ]]>
+One of these programs will be run by default when you select
+&MSG-PARTITION-DISK;. If the one which is run by default isn't the
+one you want, quit the partitioner, go to the shell (tty2), and
+manually type in the name of the program you want to use (and
+arguments, if any). Then skip the &MSG-PARTITION-DISK; step in
+<prgn>dbootstrap</prgn> and continue to the next step.
+<![ %i386 [
+Remember to mark your boot partition as ``Bootable''. ]]>
+<![ %sparc [
+Make sure you create a ``Sun disk label'' on your boot disk. This is
+the only kind of partition scheme that the OpenBoot PROM understands,
+and so it's the only scheme from which you can boot. The <em>s</em>
+key is used in <prgn>fdisk</prgn> to create Sun disk labels.
+Furthermore, on &arch-title; disks, make sure your first partition on
+your boot disk starts at cylinder 0. While this is required, it also
+means that the first partition will contain the partition table and the boot
+block, which are the first two sectors of the disk. You must
+<em>not</em> put swap on the first partition of the boot drive, since
+swap partitions do not preserve the first few sectors of the
+partition. You can put Ext2 or UFS partitions there; these will leave
+the partition table and the boot block alone.
+It is also advised that the third partition should be of type ``Whole
+disk'' (type 5), and contain the entire disk (from the first cylinder
+to the last). This is simply a convention of Sun disk labels, and
+helps the <prgn>SILO</prgn> boot loader keep its bearings.
+<![ %alpha [
+If you have chosen to boot from the SRM console, you must use
+<prgn>fdisk</prgn> to partition your disk, as it is the only
+partitioning program that can manipulate the BSD disklabels required
+by <prgn>aboot</prgn> (remember, the SRM boot block is incompatible with
+MS-DOS partition tables - see <ref id="alpha-firmware">).
+<prgn>dbootstrap</prgn> will run <prgn>fdisk</prgn> by default if you
+have not booted from <prgn>MILO</prgn>.
+If the disk that you have selected for partitioning already contains a
+BSD disklabel, <prgn>fdisk</prgn> will default to BSD disklabel mode.
+Otherwise, you must use the `b' command to enter disklabel mode.
+Unless you wish to use the disk you are partitioning from Tru64 Unix
+or one of the free 4.4BSD-Lite derived operating systems (FreeBSD,
+OpenBSD, or NetBSD), it is suggested that you do <em>not</em> make the
+third partition contain the whole disk. This is not required by
+<prgn>aboot</prgn>, and in fact, it may lead to confusion since the
+<prgn>swriteboot</prgn> utility used to install <prgn>aboot</prgn> in
+the boot sector will complain about a partition overlapping with the boot
+Also, because <prgn>aboot</prgn> is written to the first few sectors
+of the disk (currently it occupies about 70 kilobytes, or 150
+sectors), you <em>must</em> leave enough empty space at the beginning
+of the disk for it. In the past, it was suggested that you make a
+small partition at the beginning of the disk, to be left unformatted.
+For the same reason mentioned above, we now suggest that you do not do
+this on disks that will only be used by GNU/Linux.
+For ARC installations, you should make a small FAT partition at the
+beginning of the disk to contain <prgn>MILO</prgn> and
+<prgn>linload.exe</prgn> - a megabyte should be sufficient, see <ref
+id="non-debian-partitioning">. You will have to copy these files
+manually at present, by mounting the FAT partition under Linux, or by
+using <prgn>mtools</prgn>. You can use <prgn>mkdosfs</prgn> to create
+FAT partitions from a shell on the installation disk.
<![ %powerpc [
- <sect1>Partitioning Newer PowerMacs
+ <sect>Partitioning Newer PowerMacs
-If you are installing onto a `NewWorld'<footnote>The so called
-`NewWorld' PowerMacs are any <em>PowerMac</em>s in translucent colored
-plastic cases. That includes all <em>iMac</em>s, <em>iBook</em>s,
-<em>G4</em>s, blue colored <em>G3</em>s, and most <em>PowerBook</em>s
-manufactured in and after 1999. The `NewWorld' PowerMacs are also
-known for using the `ROM in RAM' system for MacOS.</footnote> PowerMac
+If you are installing onto a NewWorld PowerMac
you must create a special bootstrap partition to hold the boot
loader. The size of this partition must be 800KB and its partition
type must be <em>Apple_Bootstrap</em>. If the bootstrap partition is
not created with the the <em>Apple_Bootstrap</em> type your machine
cannot be made bootable from the hard disk. This partition can easily
-be created in <prgn>mac-fdisk</prgn> using the <example>b</example>
+be created in <prgn>mac-fdisk</prgn> using the <tt>b</tt>
-The special partition type Apple_Bootstrap is required to prevent MacOS from mounting
-and damaging the bootstrap partition, as there are special
-modifications made to it in order for OpenFirmware to boot it
+The special partition type Apple_Bootstrap is required to prevent
+MacOS from mounting and damaging the bootstrap partition, as there are
+special modifications made to it in order for OpenFirmware to boot it
Note that the bootstrap partition is only meant to hold 3 very small
@@ -293,6 +482,7 @@
disk, especially MacOS boot partitions. The bootstrap partition
should be the first one you create.
+<!-- Should this be pmac-fdisk now? -->
<![ %mac-fdisk.txt [
See the <url id="&man-mac-fdisk;" name="mac-fdisk"> documentation for
@@ -303,58 +493,140 @@
- <sect>Recommended Partitioning Scheme
-As described above, you should definitely have a separate smaller root
-partition, and a larger <file>/usr</file> partition, if you have the
-space. For examples, see below. For most users, these two partitions
-plus the swap partition are sufficient. This is especially appropriate
-when you have a single small disk, since breaking out lots of
-partitions can waste space.
-In some cases, you might need a separate <file>/usr/local</file>
-partition if you plan to install many programs that are not part of
-the Debian distribution. If your machine will be a mail server, you
-might need to make <file>/var/spool/mail</file> a separate partition.
-Often, putting <file>/tmp</file> on its own partition, for instance 20
-to 32MB, is a good idea. If you are setting up a server with lots of
-user accounts, it's generally good to have a separate, large
-<file>/home</file> partition. In general, the partitioning situation
-varies from computer to computer depending on its uses.
-For very complex systems, you should see the <url
-id="&url-multidisk-howto;" name="Multi Disk HOWTO">. This contains
-in-depth information, mostly of interest to ISPs and people setting up
-With respect to the issue of swap partition size, there are many
-views. One rule of thumb which works well is to use as much swap as
-you have system memory. It also shouldn't be smaller
-than 16MB, in most cases. Of course, there are exceptions to these
-rules. If you are trying to solve 10000 simultaneous equations on a
-machine with 256MB of memory, you may need a gigabyte (or more) of
-swap. <![ %m68k [ On the other hand, Atari Falcons and Macs feel
-pain when swapping, so instead of making a large swap partition, get
-as much RAM as possible. ]]>
-On 32-bit architectures (i386, m68k, 32-bit SPARC, and PowerPC), the
-maximum size of a swap partition is 2GB (on Alpha and SPARC64, it's so
-large as to be virtually unlimited). This should be enough for nearly
-any installation. However, if your swap requirements are this high,
-you should probably try to spread the swap across different disks
-(also called ``spindles'') and, if possible, different SCSI or IDE
-channels. The kernel will balance swap usage between multiple swap
-partitions, giving better performance.
+This will be the next step once you have created disk partitions. You
+have the choice of initializing and activating a new swap partition,
+activating a previously-initialized one, or doing without a swap
+partition. It's always permissible to re-initialize a swap partition,
+so select &MSG-INITIALIZE-SWAP; unless you are sure you know what you
+This menu choice will first present you with a dialog box reading
+&MSG-SELECT-ACTIVATE-SWAP-L;. The default device presented should be
+the swap partition you've already set up; if so, just press
+Next, there is a confirmation message, since initialization
+destroys any data previously on the partition. If all is well, select
+&MSG-YES;. The screen will flash as the initialization program runs.
+A swap partition is strongly recommended, but you can do without one
+if you insist, and if your system has more than &minimum-memory;
+RAM. If you wish to do this, please select the &MSG-DO-WITHOUT-SWAP;
+item from the menu.
+ <sect id="init-partition">&MSG-INITIALIZE-LINUX;
+At this point, the next menu item presented should be
+&MSG-INITIALIZE-LINUX;. If it isn't, it is because you haven't
+completed the disk partitioning process, or you haven't made one of
+the menu choices dealing with your swap partition.
+You can initialize a Linux partition, or alternately you can mount a
+previously-initialized one. Note that <prgn>dbootstrap</prgn> will
+<em>not</em> upgrade an old system without destroying it. If you're
+upgrading, Debian can usually upgrade itself, and you won't need to
+use <prgn>dbootstrap</prgn>. For help on upgrading to Debian &release;,
+see the <url id="&url-upgrading;" name="upgrade instructions">.
+Thus, if you are using old disk partitions that are not empty, i.e.,
+if you want to just throw away what is on them, you should initialize
+them (which erases all files). Moreover, you must initialize any
+partitions that you created in the disk partitioning step. About the
+only reason to mount a partition without initializing it at this point
+would be to mount a partition upon which you have already performed
+some part of the installation process using this same set of
+Select &MSG-INITIALIZE-LINUX; to initialize and mount the
+<file>/</file> disk partition. The first partition that you mount or
+initialize will be the one mounted as <file>/</file> (pronounced
+You will be asked whether to preserve
+&Pre-2-2-Linux-Kernel-Compatibility;. Saying &No; here means that you
+cannot run 2.0 or earlier Linux kernels on your system, since the file
+systems enable some features not supported in the 2.0 kernel. If you
+know you'll never need to run a 2.0 or earlier vintage kernel, then
+you can achieve some minor benefits by saying &No; here.
+You will also be asked about whether to scan for bad blocks. The
+default here is to skip the bad block scan, since the scan can be
+time consuming, and modern disk drive controllers internally detect
+and deal with bad blocks. However, if you are at all unsure about the
+quality of your disk drive, or if you have a rather old system, you
+should probably do the bad block scan.
+The next prompts are just confirmation steps. You will be asked to
+confirm your action, since initializing is destructive to any data on
+the partition, and you will be informed that the partition is being
+mounted as <file>/</file>, the root partition.<footnote>Technically,
+it's being mounted at <file>/target</file>; when you reboot into the
+system itself, that will become <file>/</file>.
+Once you've mounted the <file>/</file> partition, if you have
+additional file systems that you wish to initialize and mount, you
+should use the &Alternate; menu item. This is for those who have
+created separate partitions for <file>/boot</file>, <file>/var</file>,
+<file>/usr</file> or others, which ought to be initialized and mounted
+at this time.
+ <sect id="mount-already-inited">&MSG-MOUNT-LINUX;
+An alternative to <ref id="init-partition"> is the &MSG-MOUNT-LINUX;
+step. Use this if you are resuming an installation that was broken
+off, or if you want to mount partitions that have already been
+initialized or have data on it which you wish to preserve.
- <sect>Example Partitioning
-As an example, one of the authors' home machine has 32MB of RAM and a
-1.7GB IDE drive on <file>/dev/hda</file>. There is a 500MB partition
-for another operating system on <file>/dev/hda1</file> (should have
-made it 200MB as it never gets used). A 32MB swap partition is used on
-<file>/dev/hda3</file> and the rest (about 1.2GB on
-<file>/dev/hda2</file>) is the Linux partition.
+<![ %supports-nfsroot [
+If you are installing a diskless workstation, at this point, you want
+to NFS mount your root partition from the remote NFS server. Specify
+the path to the NFS server in standard NFS syntax, namely,
+If you need to mount additional filesystems as well, you can do that
+at this time.
+<![ %m68k [ The <var>server-share-path</var> for the BVM and Motorola
+VMEbus systems should match the path specified in
+<file>tftplilo.conf</file> on the TFTP server; it is used to tell the
+Linux kernel which directory to mount when the installed system is
+booted. The default path in <file>tftplilo.conf</file> is
+<file>/nfshome/%C</file>, where <tt>%C</tt> is replaced by the IP
+address, in dotted quad notation, of the booting client system. ]]>
+<p>If you have not already setup your network as described in
+<ref id="configure-network">, then selecting an NFS install will
+prompt you to do so.
+ <sect id="mount-other">
+ <heading>Mounting Partitions Not Supported by
+In some special situations, <prgn>dbootstrap</prgn> might not know how
+to mount your filesystems (whether root or otherwise). It may be
+possible, if you're an experienced Linux user, to simply go to tty2
+and manually run the commands you need to run in order to mount the
+partition in question.
+If you are mounting a root partition for your new system, just mount
+it to <file>/target</file>, the go back to dbootstrap and continue
+(perhaps running the &View-the-Partition-Table; step to cause
+<prgn>dbootstrap</prgn> to re-compute where it is in the installation
+For non-root partitions, you'll have to remember to manually modify
+your new <file>fstab</file> file so that when you reboot the partition
+will be mounted. Wait for that file (<file>/target/etc/fstab</file>)
+to be written by <prgn>dbootstrap</prgn>, of course, before editing
<!-- Keep this comment at the end of the file
RCS file: /cvs/debian-boot/boot-floppies/documentation/en/preparing.sgml,v
retrieving revision 1.25
diff -u -r1.25 preparing.sgml
--- en/preparing.sgml 2001/06/29 03:44:56 1.25
+++ en/preparing.sgml 2001/07/02 03:34:03
@@ -161,7 +161,7 @@
If your computer is connected to a network 24 hours a day (i.e., an
-Ethernet or equivalent connection -- not a PPP connection), you should
+Ethernet or equivalent connection — not a PPP connection), you should
ask your network's system administrator for this information:
@@ -403,10 +403,10 @@
Go back to the main window of <prgn>HDToolBox</prgn> and select ``Save
-changes to drive''. Think twice before actually clicking on ``Yes'' —
-have you chosen the correct partitions? No important data could get
-lost now if you made a mistake? Then click ``OK''. If required, the
-Amiga will reboot after this.
+changes to drive''. Think twice before actually clicking on ``Yes''
+— have you chosen the correct partitions? No important data
+could get lost now if you made a mistake? Then click ``OK''. If
+required, the Amiga will reboot after this.
@@ -539,7 +539,7 @@
+<!-- end %m68k --> ]]>
<![ %i386 [
<sect1>Partitioning From DOS or Windows
@@ -956,7 +956,7 @@
settings: ``Disabled'' and ``1 Megabyte''. Set it to ``1
Megabyte''. When disabled, the installation floppy was not read
correctly, and the system eventually crashed. At this writing we don't
-understand what's going on with this particular device -- it just
+understand what's going on with this particular device — it just
worked with that setting and not without it.
RCS file: /cvs/debian-boot/boot-floppies/documentation/en/rescue-boot.sgml,v
retrieving revision 1.49
diff -u -r1.49 rescue-boot.sgml
--- en/rescue-boot.sgml 2001/06/29 02:47:00 1.49
+++ en/rescue-boot.sgml 2001/07/02 03:34:05
@@ -424,7 +424,7 @@
-]]><!-- %bootable-disk -->
+<!-- end %bootable-disk --> ]]>
<![ %powerpc [
<sect1>Booting CHRP from OpenFirmware
@@ -915,6 +915,137 @@
In the bug report, describe what the problem is, including the last
visible kernel messages in the event of a kernel hang. Describe the
steps that you did which brought the system into the problem state.
+ <sect id="dbootstrap-intro">Introduction to <prgn>dbootstrap</prgn>
+<prgn>dbootstrap</prgn> is the name of the program which is run after
+you have booted into the installation system. It is responsible for
+initial system configuration and the installation of the ``base
+The main job of <prgn>dbootstrap</prgn>, and the main purpose of your
+initial system configuration, is to configure essential elements of
+your system. For instance, you may need to use certain ``kernel
+modules'', drivers which are linked into the kernel. These
+modules include storage hardware drivers, network drivers, special
+language support, and support for other peripherals which are not
+automatically built in to the kernel you are using.
+Disk partitioning, disk formatting, and networking setup are also
+facilitated by <prgn>dbootstrap</prgn>. This fundamental setup is done
+first, since it is often necessary for the proper functioning of your
+<prgn>dbootstrap</prgn> is a simple, character-based application,
+designed for maximum compatibility in all situations (such as
+installation over a serial line). It is very easy to use. It will
+guide you through each step of the installation process in a linear
+fashion. You can also go back and repeat steps if you find you have
+made a mistake.
+Navigation within <prgn>dbootstrap</prgn> is accomplished with the
+arrow keys, &enterkey;, and <em>Tab</em>.
+ <sect1 id="dbootstrap-shell-log">
+ <heading>Using the Shell and Viewing the Logs</heading>
+If you are an experienced Unix or Linux user, press <em>Left
+Alt-F2</em> <![ %m68k %powerpc [(on a Mac keyboard,
+<em>Command/Apple-F2</em>) ]]> to get to the second <em>virtual
+console</em>. That's the <em>Alt</em> key on the left-hand side of the
+space bar, and the <em>F2</em> function key, at the same time. This is
+a separate window running a Bourne shell clone called
+<prgn>ash</prgn>. At this point you are booted from the RAM disk, and
+there is a limited set of Unix utilities available for your use. You
+can see what programs are available with the command <tt>ls /bin /sbin
+/usr/bin /usr/sbin</tt>. Use the menus to perform any task that they
+are able to do — the shell and commands are only there in case
+something goes wrong. In particular, you should always use the menus,
+not the shell, to activate your swap partition, because the menu
+software can't detect that you've done this from the shell. Press
+<em>Left Alt-F1</em> to get back to menus. Linux provides up to 64
+virtual consoles, although the &RESCUE-FLOPPY; only uses a few of
+Error messages are redirected to the third virtual terminal
+(known as <tt>tty3</tt>). You can access this terminal by pressing
+<em>Left Alt-F3</em> (hold the <em>Alt</em> key while pressing the
+<em>F3</em> function key); get back to <prgn>dbootstrap</prgn> with
+These messages can also be found in <file>/var/log/messages</file>.
+After installation, this log is copied to
+<file>/var/log/installer.log</file> on your new system.
+ <sect id="dbootstrap-welcome">&Release-Notes;
+The first screen <prgn>dbootstrap</prgn> will present you with is the
+&Release-Notes;. This screen presents the version information for the
+<package>boot-floppies</package> software you are using, and gives a
+brief introduction to Debian developers.
+ <sect id="dbootstrap-title">&MSG-TITLE-MENU;
+You may see a dialog box that says &MSG-WAIT-STATE;. On some systems,
+this will go by too quickly to read. You'll see this dialog box
+between steps in the main menu. The installation program,
+<prgn>dbootstrap</prgn>, will check the state of the system in between
+each step. This checking allows you to re-start the installation
+without losing the work you have already done, in case you happen to
+halt your system in the middle of the installation process. If you
+have to restart an installation, you will have to configure your
+keyboard, re-activate your swap partition, and re-mount any disks that
+have been initialized. Anything else that you have done with the
+installation system will be saved.
+During the entire installation process, you will be presented with the
+main menu, entitled &MSG-TITLE-MENU;. The choices at the top of the
+menu will change to indicate your progress in installing the
+system. Phil Hughes wrote in the <url id="&url-linux-journal;"
+name="Linux Journal"> that you could teach a <em>chicken</em> to install
+Debian! He meant that the installation process was mostly just
+<em>pecking</em> at the &enterkey; key. The first choice on the
+installation menu is the next action that you should perform according
+to what the system detects you have already done. It should say
+&MSG-NEXT;, and at this point the next step in installing the system
+will be taken.
+Make sure the highlight is on the &MSG-NEXT; item, and press
+&enterkey; to go to the keyboard configuration menu. Select a
+keyboard that conforms to the layout used for your national language,
+or select something close if the keyboard layout you want isn't
+represented. Once the system installation is complete, you'll be able
+to select a keyboard layout from a wider range of choices (run
+<prgn>kbdconfig</prgn> as root when you have completed the
+Move the highlight to the keyboard selection you desire and press
+&enterkey;. Use the arrow keys to move the highlight — they are
+in the same place in all national language keyboard layouts, so they
+are independent of the keyboard configuration.
+<![ %supports-nfsroot [
+If you are installing a diskless workstation, the next few steps will
+be skipped, since there are no local disks to partition. In that
+case, your next step will be <ref id="configure-network">. After
+that, you will be prompted to mount your NFS root partition in <ref
+ <sect>Last Chance!
+Did we tell you to back up your disks? Here's your last chance to save
+your old system. If you haven't backed up all of your disks, remove
+the floppy from the drive, reset the system, and run backups.
<!-- Keep this comment at the end of the file
RCS file: /cvs/debian-boot/boot-floppies/documentation/en/tech-info.sgml,v
retrieving revision 1.14
diff -u -r1.14 tech-info.sgml
--- en/tech-info.sgml 2001/06/13 19:10:50 1.14
+++ en/tech-info.sgml 2001/07/02 03:34:05
@@ -36,13 +36,13 @@
Loop device support (<tt>CONFIG_BLK_DEV_LOOP</tt>)
FAT, Minix, and Ext2 filesystems (some architectures don't need FAT
-and/or Minix filesystems -- see the source)
+and/or Minix filesystems — see the source)
Socket filtering for DHCP (<tt>CONFIG_FILTER</tt>)
Packet socket, also for DHCP (<tt>CONFIG_PACKET</tt>)
-Unix domain sockets for syslogging <![%i386 [ -- it is provided as a
+Unix domain sockets for syslogging <![%i386 [ — is provided as a
module in the vanilla flavor ]]> (<tt>CONFIG_UNIX</tt>)
<!-- retain these comments for translator revision tracking -->
<!-- $Id: boot-mew.sgml,v 1.70 2001/06/29 04:12:33 aph Exp $ -->
<chapt id="init-config">Booting Into Your New Debian System
If you elect to make the hard disk boot directly to Linux, <![
%supports-nfsroot [ and you are <em>not</em> installing a diskless
workstation, ]]> you will be asked to install a master boot record. If
you aren't using a boot manager (and this is probably the case if you
don't know what a boot manager is) and you don't have another
different operating system on the same machine, answer &MSG-YES; to
<![ %i386 [ Note that if you answer &MSG-YES;, you won't be able to
boot into DOS normally on your machine, for instance. Be careful, and
see <ref id="reactivating-win">. ]]>
If you answer &MSG-YES;, the next question will be whether you want to
boot Linux automatically from the hard disk when you turn on your
system. This sets Linux root partition to be the <em>bootable partition</em>
— the one that will be loaded from the hard disk.
Note that multiple operating system booting on a single machine is
still something of a black art. This document does not even attempt
to document the various boot managers, which vary by architecture and
even by subarchitecture. You should see your boot manager's
documentation for more information. Remember: when working with the
boot manager, you can never be too careful.
<!-- for each architecture, talk very briefly about the boot loader, -->
<!-- and how to recover your native OS if feasible -->
<![ %i386 [
The standard &architecture; boot loader is called ``LILO''. It is a
complex program which offers lots of functionality, including DOS, NT,
and OS/2 boot management. Please carefully read the instructions in
the directory <file>/usr/share/doc/lilo/</file> if you have special needs;
also see the <url id="&url-lilo-howto;" name="LILO mini-HOWTO">.
You can skip this step for now, and set the bootable partition later
with the Linux <prgn>fdisk</prgn> or <prgn>activate</prgn> programs.
If you mess up and can no longer boot into DOS, you'll need to use a
DOS boot disk and use the <tt>fdisk /mbr</tt> command to reinstall the
DOS master boot record — however, this means that you'll need to use
some other way to get back into Debian! For more information on this
please read <ref id="reactivating-win">.
<![ %m68k [ <![ %FIXME [ <p><em>FIXME: about the boot manager</em> ]]> ]]>
<![ %alpha [
If you have booted from SRM, if you select this option, the installer
will write <prgn>aboot</prgn> to the first sector of the disk on which
you installed Debian. Be <em>very</em> careful - it is <em>not</em>
possible to boot multiple operating systems (e.g. GNU/Linux,
Free/Open/NetBSD, OSF/1 a.k.a. Digital Unix a.k.a. Tru64 Unix, or
OpenVMS) from the same disk. If you also have a different operating
system installed on the disk where you have installed Debian, you will
have to boot GNU/Linux from a floppy instead.
<![ %sparc [
The standard &architecture; boot loader is called ``silo''. It is
documented in <file>/usr/share/doc/silo/</file>. <prgn>SILO</prgn> is
similar in configuration and usage to <prgn>LILO</prgn>, with a few
exceptions. First of all, <prgn>SILO</prgn> allows you to boot any kernel
image on your drive, even if it is not listed in <file>/etc/silo.conf</file>.
This is because <prgn>SILO</prgn> can actually read Linux partitions.
Also, <file>/etc/silo.conf</file> is read at boot time, so there is no
need to rerun <prgn>silo</prgn> after installing a new kernel like you would
with <prgn>LILO</prgn>. <prgn>SILO</prgn> can also read UFS partitions,
which means it can boot SunOS/Solaris partitions aswell. This is useful
if you want to install Linux along side an existing SunOS/Solaris install.
<![ %powerpc [
The bootloader for OldWorld Power Macintosh machines is ``<prgn>quik</prgn>''.
You can also use it on CHRP. For all others, such as Apus,
Be-Box, MBX and PReP we need a generic bootloader.
The installer will normally succeed in making the hard disk bootable.
If &debian; is not booted when you reboot, you may need to reboot the
installer, select &Execute-a-Shell; and run:
<example>nvsetenv boot-device "$(ofpath /dev/sda)0"</example> where
<file>/dev/sda</file> is your root disk.
Newer (mid 1998 and on) PowerMacs use <prgn>yaboot</prgn> as their
bootloader The installer will set up <prgn>yaboot</prgn>
automatically, so all you should need to do is run the
&Make-Linux-Bootable-Directly-From-Hard-Disk; step, if that completes
sucessfully then your disk should now be bootable and OpenFirmware
will be set to boot %debian;.
On G4 machines and iBooks, you can hold down the option key and get a
graphical screen with a button for each bootable OS, &debian; will be
a button with a small penguin icon.
If you kept MacOS and at some point it changes the OpenFirmware
boot-device variable you should reset OpenFirmware to its default
configuration. To do this hold down the "command option p r" keys
while cold booting the machine.
Resetting OpenFirmware on G3 or G4 hardware will cause it to boot
&debian; by default (if you correctly partitioned and placed the
Apple_Bootstrap partition first). If you have &debian; on a SCSI disk
and MacOS on an IDE disk this may not work and you will have to enter
OpenFirmware and set the boot-device variable, ybin normally does this
After you boot &debian; for the first time you can add any additional
options you desire (such as dual boot options) to
<file>/etc/yaboot.conf</file> and run <prgn>ybin</prgn> to update your
boot partition with the changed configuration. Please read the
yaboot.conf man page for more information.
<![ %hppa [
The bootloader on PA/RISC is ``palo''. <prgn>PALO</prgn> is similar in
configuration and usage to <prgn>LILO</prgn>, with a few exceptions. First
of all, <prgn>PALO</prgn> allows you to boot any kernel imae on your boot
partition. This is because <prgn>PALO</prgn> can actually read Linux
hppa FIXME ( need more info )
<![ %arm [ <![ %FIXME [ <p><em>FIXME: about the boot manager?</em> ]]> ]]>
<![ %supports-nfsroot [
If you are installing a diskless workstation, obviously, booting off the
local disk isn't a meaningful option, and this step will be skipped.
<![ %sparc [ You may wish to set the OpenBoot to boot from the network by
default; see <ref id="boot-dev-select-sun">. ]]> ]]>
You may wish to make a boot floppy even if you intend to boot the
system from the hard disk. The reason for this is that it's possible
for the hard disk bootstrap to be mis-installed, but a boot floppy
will almost always work.
<![ %m68k %powerpc [ Unfortunately, this option is not available on Macintosh
Select &MSG-FLOPPY-BOOT; from the menu and feed the system a blank
floppy as directed. Make sure the floppy isn't write-protected, as the
software will format and write it. Mark this the ``Custom Boot''
floppy and write-protect it once it has been written.
This floppy will contain a kernel and a simple filesystem, with a
directive to use your new root filesystem.
<sect id="base-boot">The Moment of Truth
You system's first boot on its own power is what electrical engineers
call the ``smoke test''. If you have any floppies in your floppy
drive, remove them. Select the &MSG-REBOOT; menu item.
If are booting directly into Debian, and the system doesn't start up,
either use your original installation boot media (for instance, the
&RESCUE-FLOPPY;), or insert the Custom Boot floppy if you created one,
and reset your system. If you are <em>not</em> using the Custom Boot
floppy, you will probably need to add some boot arguments. If booting
with the &RESCUE-FLOPPY; or similar technique, you need to specify
<tt>rescue root=<var>root</var></tt>, where <var>root</var> is your
root partition, such as ``/dev/sda1''.
<![ %m68k [
If you have just performed a diskless install on a BVM or Motorola
VMEbus machine: once the system has loaded the <prgn>tftplilo</prgn>
program from the TFTP server, from the <tt>LILO Boot:</tt> prompt
enter one of:
``b6000 &enterkey;'' to boot a BVME4000/6000
``b162 &enterkey;'' to boot an MVME162
``b167 &enterkey;'' to boot an MVME166/167
Debian should boot, and you should see the same messages as
when you first booted the installation system, followed by some new
<sect id="base-config">Debian Post-Boot (Base) Configuration
After booting, you will be prompted to complete the configuration of
your basic system, and then to select what additional packages you
wish to install. The application which guides you through this
process is called <package>base-config</package>.
If you wish to re-run <package>base-config</package> at any point
after installation is complete, as root run <tt>dpkg-reconfigure
<sect id="base-config-md5">MD5 Passwords
You will first be prompted whether to install MD5 passwords. This is
an alternate method of storing passwords on your system which is more
secure than the standard means (called ``crypt'').
The default is ``no'', but if you do not require NIS support and are
very concerned about security on this machine, you may say ``yes''.
<sect id="base-config-shadow">Shadow Passwords
Unless you said ``yes'' to MD5 passwords, the system will ask whether
you want to enable shadow passwords. This is a system in which your
Linux system is made to be a bit more secure. In a system without
shadow passwords, passwords are stored (encrypted) in a world-readable
file, <file>/etc/passwd</file>. This file has to be readable to
anyone who can log in because it contains vital user information, for
instance, how to map between numeric user identifiers and login names.
Therefore, someone could conceivably grab your
<file>/etc/passwd</file> file and run a brute force attack (i.e. run
an automated test of all possible password combinations) against it to
try to determine passwords.
If you have shadow passwords enabled, passwords are instead stored in
<file>/etc/shadow</file>, which is readable and writable only by root,
and readable by group shadow. Therefore, we recommend that you enable
Reconfiguration of the shadow password system can be done at any time
with the <prgn>shadowconfig</prgn> program. After installation, see
<file>/usr/share/doc/passwd/README.debian.gz</file> for more information.
<sect id="base-config-root">Set the Root Password
The <em>root</em> account is also called the <em>super-user</em>; it
is a login that bypasses all security protection on your system. The
root account should only be used to perform system administration, and
only used for as short a time as possible.
Any password you create should contain from 6 to 8 characters, and
should contain both upper- and lower-case characters, as well as
punctuation characters. Take extra care when setting your root
password, since it is such a powerful account. Avoid dictionary
words or use of any personal information which could be guessed.
If anyone ever tells you they need your root password, be extremely
wary. You should normally never give your root account out, unless you
are administering a machine with more than one system administrator.
<sect id="make-normal-user">Create an Ordinary User
The system will ask you whether you wish to create an ordinary user
account at this point. This account should be your main personal
log-in. You should <em>not</em> use the root account for daily use or
as your personal login.
Why not? Well, one reason to avoid using root's privileges is that it
is very easy to do irreparable damage as root. Another reason is that
you might be tricked into running a <em>Trojan-horse</em> program —
that is a program that takes advantage of your super-user powers to
compromise the security of your system behind your back. Any good book
on Unix system administration will cover this topic in more detail —
consider reading one if it is new to you.
Name the user account anything you like. If your name is John Smith,
you might use ``smith'', ``john'', ``jsmith'' or ``js''. You will
also be prompted for the full name of the user, and, like before, a
If at any point after installation you would like to create another
account, use the <prgn>adduser</prgn> command.
<sect id="PPP">Setting Up PPP
You will next be asked whether you wish to install the rest of the
system using PPP. If you are installing from CD-ROM and/or are
connected directly to the network, you can safely say ``no'' and skip
If you do choose to configure PPP at this point, a program named
<prgn>pppconfig</prgn> will be run. This program helps you configure
your PPP connection. <em>Make sure, when it asks you for the name of
your dialup connection, that you name it ``provider''.</em>
Hopefully, the <prgn>pppconfig</prgn> program will walk you through a
pain-free PPP connection setup. However, if it does not work for you,
see below for detailed instructions.
In order to setup PPP, you'll need to know the basics of file viewing
and editing in Linux. To view files, you should use
<prgn>more</prgn>, and <prgn>zmore</prgn> for compressed files with a
<tt>.gz</tt> extension. For example, to view
<file>README.debian.gz</file>, type <tt>zmore README.debian.gz</tt>.
The base system comes with two editors: <prgn>ae</prgn>, which is very
simple to use, but does not have a lot of features, and
<prgn>elvis-tiny</prgn>, a limited clone of <prgn>vi</prgn>. You will
probably want to install more full-featured editors and viewers later,
such as <prgn>nvi</prgn>, <prgn>less</prgn>, and <prgn>emacs</prgn>.
Edit <file>/etc/ppp/peers/provider</file> and replace ``/dev/modem''
with ``/dev/ttyS<var>#</var>'' where <var>#</var> stands for
the number of your serial port. In Linux, serial ports are counted
from 0; your first serial port <![ %i386 [ (i.e., <tt>COM1</tt>) ]]>
is <file>/dev/ttyS0</file> under Linux. The next step is to edit
<file>/etc/chatscripts/provider</file> and insert your provider's phone
number, your user-name and password. Please do not delete the ``\q''
that precedes the password. It hides the password from appearing in your
Many providers use PAP or CHAP for login sequence instead of text mode
authentication. Others use both. If your provider requires PAP or
CHAP, you'll need to follow a different procedure. Comment out
everything below the dialing string (the one that starts with
``ATDT'') in <file>/etc/chatscripts/provider</file>, modify
<file>/etc/ppp/peers/provider</file> as described above, and add
<tt>user <var>name</var></tt> where <var>name</var> stands for your
user-name for the provider you are trying to connect to. Next, edit
<file>/etc/ppp/pap-secrets</file> or <file>/etc/ppp/chap-secrets</file>
and enter your password there.
You will also need to edit <file>/etc/resolv.conf</file> and add your
provider's name server (DNS) IP addresses. The lines in
<file>/etc/resolv.conf</file> are in the following format:
<tt>nameserver <var>xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx</var></tt> where the <var>x</var>s
stand for numbers in your IP address. Optionally, you could add the
<tt>usepeerdns</tt> option to the <file>/etc/ppp/peers/provider</file>
file, which will enable automatic choosing of appropriate DNS servers,
using settings the remote host usually provides.
Unless your provider has a login sequence different from the majority
of ISPs, you are done! Start the PPP connection by typing
<prgn>pon</prgn> as root, and monitor the process using
<prgn>plog</prgn> command. To disconnect, use <prgn>poff</prgn>,
again, as root.
Read <file>/usr/share/doc/ppp/README.Debian.gz</file> file for more
information on using PPP on Debian.
<![ %supports-pcmcia [
If you have no use for PCMCIA, you can choose to remove it at this
point. This will make your startup cleaner; also, it will make it
easier to replace your kernel (PCMCIA requires a lot of correlation
between the version of the PCMCIA drivers, the kernel modules, and the
<sect id="configure-apt">Configuring APT
The main means that people use to install packages on their system is
via a program called <prgn>apt-get</prgn>, from the
Note that the actual program that installs packages is called
<prgn>dpkg</prgn>. However, this package is more of a low-level tool.
<prgn>apt-get</prgn> will invoke <prgn>dpkg</prgn> as appropriate; it
is a higher-level too, however, because it knows to install other
packages which are required for the package you're trying to install,
as well as how to retrieve the package from your CD, the network, or
APT must be configured, however, so that it knows where to retrieve
packages from. The helper application which assists in this task is
The next step in your configuration process is to tell APT where other
Debian packages can be found. Note that you can re-run this tool at
any point after installation by running <prgn>apt-setup</prgn>, or by
manually editing <file>/etc/apt/sources.list</file>.
If you are booting from an official CD-ROM, then that CD-ROM should
automatically be configured as an apt source without prompting. You
will notice this because you will see the CD-ROM being scanned, and
then asked if you want to configure another CD-ROM. If you have a
multiple CD-ROM set — and most people will — then you
should go ahead and scan each of them one by one.
For users without an official CD-ROM, you will be offered an array of
choices for how Debian packages are accessed: FTP, HTTP, CD-ROM, or a
local filesystem. For CD-ROM users, you can get to this step by
specifically asking to add another source.
You should know that it's perfectly acceptable to have a number of
different APT sources, even for the same Debian archive.
<prgn>apt-get</prgn> will automatically pick the package with the
highest version number given all the available versions. Or, for
instance, if you have both an HTTP and a CD-ROM APT source,
<prgn>apt-get</prgn> should automatically use the local CD-ROM when
possible, and only resort to HTTP if a newer version is available
there. However, it is not a good idea to add unnecessary APT sources,
since this will tend to slow down the process of checking the network
archives for new versions.
<sect1 id="configure-apt-net">Configuring Network Package Sources
If you plan on installing the rest of your system via the network, the
most common option is to select the ``http'' source. The ``ftp''
source is also acceptable, but tends to be a little slower making
For any of the network package sources, you will be prompted whether
you wish to use ``non-US software''. You will generally wish to say
``yes'', because otherwise you won't be able to install
cryptographically secure software, such as the popular
Next you will be asked whether you wish to have any non-free software.
That refers to commercial software or any other software whose
licensing does not comply with the <url id="&url-dfsg;" name="Debian
Free Software Guidelines">. It's fine to say ``yes'', but be careful
when installing such software, because you will need to ensure that
you are using the software in compliance with its license.
The next step during the configuration of network packages sources is
to tell <prgn>apt-setup</prgn> which country you live in. This
configures which of the official Debian Internet mirror network you
connect to. Depending on which country you select, you will be
given a list of possible machines. Its generally fine to pick the one
on the top of the list, but any of them should work.
If you are installing via HTTP, you will be asked to configure your
proxy server. This is sometimes required by people behind firewalls,
on corporate networks, etc.
Finally, your new network package source will be tested. If all goes
well, you will be prompted whether you want to do it all over again
with another network source.
<heading>Package Installation: Simple or Advanced</heading>
You will next be prompted whether you wish to install packages the
simple way, or the more fine-grained, advanced way. We recommend you
start with the simple way, since you can always run the more advanced
way at any time.
You should know that for simple installation, <prgn>base-config</prgn>
is merely invoking the <prgn>tasksel</prgn> program. For advanced
package installation, the <prgn>dselect</prgn> program is being run.
Either of these can be run at any time after installation to install
more packages. If you are looking for a specific single package,
after installation is complete, simply run <tt>apt-get install
<var>package</var></tt>, where <var>package</var> is the name of the
package you are looking for.
<heading>Simple Package Selection — The Task Installer</heading>
If you chose ``simple'' installation, you will next be thrown into the
Task Installer (<prgn>tasksel</prgn>). This technique offers you a
number of pre-rolled software configurations offered by Debian. You
could always choose, package by package, what do you want to install
on your new machine. This is the purpose of the <prgn>dselect</prgn>
program, described below. But this can be a long task with around
&num-of-distrib-pkgs; packages available in Debian!
So, you have the ability to choose <em>tasks</em> instead. These
loosely represent a number of different jobs or things you want to do
with your computer, such as ``Samba'' for SAMBA servers, or ``Gnome
Desktop'' for the GNOME desktop environment.
For each task, you can highlight that task and select ``Task Info'' to
see more information on that task. This will show you an extended
description and the list of packages included for that task.
Once you've selected your tasks, select ``Finish''. At this point,
<prgn>apt-get</prgn> will be run to install the packages you've
selected. You will be shown the number of packages to be installed,
and how many kilobytes of packages, if any, need to be downloaded.
There are two caveats to be mentioned at this point. Firstly, of the
&num-of-distrib-pkgs; packages available in Debian, only a small
minority of those are covered by tasks offered in the Task Installer.
To see information on more packages, either use <tt>apt-cache search
<var>search-string</var></tt> for some given search string (see the
<manref name="apt-cache" section="8"> man page), or run
<prgn>dselect</prgn> as described below.
The second caveat is that some so-called ``standard'' packages are not
installed by default. Thus, some software, which we consider basic to
any Linux system, may not be installed.<footnote>
This is due to a bug in <package>base-config</package> which we have
fixed for the next release. We decided not to change this after
Potato release, since it was a rather large change, and too likely to
In order to install that software, simply run <tt>tasksel -s</tt>,
without selecting any packages, then select ``Finish''.
<heading>Advanced Package Selection with <prgn>dselect</prgn></heading>
If you selected ``advanced'' packge selection, you'll be dropped into
the <prgn>dselect</prgn> program. The <url
id="&url-local-dselect-beginner;" name="dselect Tutorial"> is required
reading before you run <prgn>dselect</prgn>. <prgn>dselect</prgn>
allows you to select <em>packages</em> to be installed on your
system. If you have a CD-ROM or hard disk containing the additional
Debian packages that you want to install on your system, or you are
connected to the Internet, this will be useful to you right
away. Otherwise, you may want to quit <prgn>dselect</prgn> and start
it later, once you have transported the Debian package files to your
system. You must be the super-user (root) when you run
After you've installed packages, you'll be presented with the login
prompt. Log in using the personal login and password you
selected. Your system is now ready to use.
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<chapt id="install-system">Installing the Kernel and Base Operating System
The next step is to install a kernel and kernel modules onto your new
You will be offered a menu of devices from which you can install the
kernel. Choose the appropriate device from which to install the
kernel and modules. Remember that you can use any devices which is
available to you, and that you are not restricted to using the same
media you used to mount with (see <ref id="install-methods">).
Note that the options presented to you will vary based on what
hardware <prgn>dbootstrap</prgn> has detected. If you are installing
from an official CD-ROM, the software should do the right thing
automatically, not even prompting you for a device to install from
(unless you boot with the <tt>verbose</tt> argument). When prompted
for the CD-ROM, be sure to insert the first CD-ROM in the drive.
If you are installing from a local filesystem, you have a choice
between two options. Select ``harddisk'' if the disk partition is not
yet mounted; select ``mounted'' if it is. In both cases, the system
will first look for some files in
If it doesn't find those files, you will be prompted to
&Select-Debian-Archive-path; — this is the directory within the
disk where you have placed the required installation files. If you
have a Debian archive mirrored locally, you can use that by giving the
directory where that exists, which is often
<file>/archive/debian</file>. Such archives are characterized by
directory structures such as
You can type in the path manually, or use the <tt><...></tt>
button to browse through the filesystem tree.
Continuing the discusssion on installation from a local disk or
similar medium (such as NFS), you will next be prompted for the actual
directory containing the needed files (which may be based on your
subarchitecture). Note that the system may be quite insistent that
the files appear in the precise location indicated, including the
subdirectories, if any. See the logs in tty3 (see <ref
id="dbootstrap-shell-log">) where <prgn>dbootstrap</prgn> will log the
location of the files it's looking for.
If the ``default'' option appears, then you should use that.
Otherwise, try the ``list'' option to let <prgn>dbootstrap</prgn> try
to find the actual files on its own (but note that this can be very
slow if you're mounting over NFS). As a last resort, use the
``manual'' option to specify the directory manually.
<![ %m68k [
On Macintosh systems, you will be offered three choices due to a quirk
in the Linux HFS filesystem code:
Only the last directory actually contains the data portion of the
files. Either type in the right path, or skip the
<file>.finderinfo</file> and <file>.resource</file> entries. ]]>
If you're installing from floppies, you'll need to feed in the
&RESCUE-FLOPPY; (which is probably already in the drive), followed by
If you wish to install the kernel and modules over the network, you
can do this using the ``network'' (HTTP) or ``nfs'' options. Your
networking interfaces must be supported by the standard kernel (see
<ref id="supported-peripherals">). If these ``nfs'' options don't
appear, you need to select &MSG-CANCEL;, then go back and select the
&MSG-CONFIGURE-NET; step (see <ref id="configure-network">), and then
re-run this step.
Select the ``nfs'' option, and then tell <prgn>dbootstrap</prgn> your
NFS server name and path. Assuming you've put the &RESCUE-FLOPPY; and
&DRIVER-FLOPPY; images on the NFS server in the proper location, these
files should be available to you for installing the kernel and
modules. The NFS filesystem will be mounted under
<file>/instmnt</file>. Select the location of the files as for
``harddisk'' or ``mounted''.
Select the ``network'' option, and then tell <prgn>dbootstrap</prgn>
the URL and path to the Debian archive. The default will usually work
fine, and in any case, the path part is probably correct for any
official Debian mirror, even if you edit the server part. You may
choose to pull the files in through a proxy server; just enter the
server <![ %FIXME [ <strong>...this sentence isn't finished...</strong> ]]>
<![ %supports-nfsroot [
<sect id="install-os-nfsroot">NFS Root
If you are installing a diskless workstation, you should have already
configured your networking as described in <ref
id="configure-network">. You should be given the option to install
the kernel and modules from NFS. Proceed using the ``nfs'' option
described above. ]]>
Other steps may need to be taken for other installation media.
<![ %supports-pcmcia [
There is an alternate step, <em>before</em> the
&MSG-CONFIGURE-MODULES; menu selection, called &MSG-CONFIGURE-PCMCIA;.
This menu is used to enable PCMCIA support.
If you do have PCMCIA, but are not installing your Debian system using
it (e.g., installation with a PCMCIA Ethernet card), then you need not
configure PCMCIA at this point. You can easily configure and enable
PCMCIA at a later point, after installation is complete. However, if
you are installing by way of a PCMCIA network device, this alternate
must be selected, and PCMCIA support must be configured prior to
configuring the network.
If you need to install PCMCIA, select the alternate, below
&MSG-CONFIGURE-MODULES;. You will be asked which PCMCIA controller
your system contains. In most cases, this will be <tt>i82365</tt>.
In some cases, it will be <tt>tcic</tt>; your laptop's vendor-supplied
specifications should provide the information if in doubt. You
can generally leave the next few sets of options blank. Again,
certain hardware has special needs; the <url id="&url-pcmcia-howto;"
name="Linux PCMCIA HOWTO"> contains plenty of information in case the
default doesn't work.
In some unusual cases, you may also need to read and edit
<file>/etc/pcmcia/config.opts</file>. You can open your second
virtual terminal (<em>Left Alt-F2</em>) and edit the file there, and
then reconfigure your PCMCIA, or manually forcing a reload of the
modules using <prgn>insmod</prgn> and <prgn>rmmod</prgn>.
Once PCMCIA is properly configured and installed, you should jump back
up and configure your device drivers as described in the next section.
Select the &MSG-CONFIGURE-MODULES; menu item to configure device
drivers, that is, kernel modules.
You will first be prompted if you would like to load additional kernel
modules from a vendor-supplied floppy. Most can skip this step, since
it is only useful if there are some additional proprietary or
non-standard modules which are needed for your hardware (for instance,
for a specific SCSI controller). It will look for modules in the
floppy in locations such as <file>/lib/modules/misc</file> (where
<var>misc</var> can be any standard kernel module section). Any such
files will be copied to the disk you're installing to, so that they
can be configured in the next step.
Next, the <prgn>modconf</prgn> program will be run, which is a simple
program which displays the kernel modules sections and allows you to
step through the various kernel sections, picking out what modules you
would like to install.
We recommend that you <em>only</em> configure devices which are
required for the installation process and not already detected by the
kernel. Many people do not need to configure any kernel modules at
For instance, you may need to explicitly load a network interface card
driver from the <tt>net</tt> section, a SCSI disk driver in the
<tt>scsi</tt> section, or a driver for a proprietary CD-ROM in the
<tt>cdrom</tt> section. The devices you configure will be loaded
automatically whenever your system boots.
Some modules may require parameters. To see what parameters are
relevant, you'll have to consult the documentation for that kernel
At any point after the system is installed, you can reconfigure your
modules by using the <prgn>modconf</prgn> program.
If the installation system does not detect that you have a network
device available, you will be presented with the
&Configure-the-Hostname; option. Even if you don't have a network, or
if your network connection dynamically goes up and down (e.g., uses
dialup) your machine must have a name to call itself.
If the installation system does detect a network device, you'll be
presented with the &MSG-CONFIGURE-NET; step. If the system does not
allow you to run this step, then that means it cannot see any network
devices present. If you have a network device, that means you
probably missed configuring the network device back in <ref
id="configure-modules">. Go back to that step and look for
As you enter the &MSG-CONFIGURE-NET; step, if the system detects that
you have more than one network device, you'll be asked to choose which
device you wish to configure. You may only configure one.
After installation, you may configuration additional interfaces
— see the <manref name="interfaces" section="5"> man page.
<![ %supports-pcmcia [
If <prgn>dbootstrap</prgn> detects that you configured PCMCIA (<ref
id="configure-pcmcia">), you will be asked to confirm that your
network card is a PCMCIA card. This affects how and where the network
configuration is set.
<prgn>dbootstrap</prgn> will next ask you whether you wish to use a
DHCP or BOOTP server to configure your network. If you can, you
should say &Yes;, since it allows you to skip all the rest of the next
section. You should hopefully see the reply
forward to <ref id="install-base">. If configuration fails, check
your wires and the log on tty3, or else move on and configure the
To manually configure the network, <prgn>dbootstrap</prgn> will ask a
number of questions about your network; fill in the answers from <ref
id="needed-info">. The system will also summarize your network
information and ask you for confirmation. Next, you need to specify
the network device that your primary network connection uses.
Usually, this will be ``eth0'' (the first Ethernet device).
Some technical details you might, or might not, find handy: the
program assumes the network IP address is the bitwise-AND of your
system's IP address and your netmask. It will guess the broadcast
address is the bitwise OR of your system's IP address with the bitwise
negation of the netmask. It will guess that your gateway system is
also your DNS server. If you can't find any of these answers, use the
system's guesses — you can change them once the system has been
installed, if necessary, by editing <file>/etc/network/interfaces</file>.
Alternatively, you can install <package>etherconf</package>, which will
step you through your network setup.
The next step is to install the base system. The base system is a
minimal set of packages which provides a working, basic,
self-contained system. It's under 70MB in size.
During the &MSG-INSTALL-BASE; step, if you're not installing from a
CD-ROM, you'll be offered a menu of devices from which you may install
the base system. You should select the appropriate installation media.
If you are installing from an official CD-ROM, you will simply be
prompted to insert it.
If you choose to install from a filesystem on the harddisk or from a
non-official CD-ROM, you will be prompted to specify the path to the
&base-disk-tarball; file. If you have official media, the default
value should be correct. Otherwise, enter the path where the base
system can be found, relative to the media's mount point. As with the
&MSG-INSTALL-OS; step, you can either let <prgn>dbootstrap</prgn> find
the file itself or type in the path at the prompt.
If you choose to install from floppy disk, feed in the base floppies
in order, as requested by <prgn>dbootstrap</prgn>. If one of the base
floppies is unreadable, you'll have to create a replacement floppy and
feed all floppies into the system again. Once the floppies have all
been read, the system will install the files it had read from the
floppies. This could take 10 minutes or more on slow systems, less on
If you are installing the base system from NFS, then choose NFS and
continue. You'll be prompted to specify the server, the share on the
server, and the subdirectory within that share where the
<file>&base-disk-tarball;</file> file can be found. If you have
problems mounting NFS, make sure that the system time on the NFS
server more or less agrees with the system time on the client. You
can set your date on <file>tty2</file> using the <tt>date</tt>
command; you'll have to set it by hand. See the <manref name="date"
section="1"> manual page.
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