Re: [DRAFT FOR REVIEW] Debian GNU/Linux 32.8 TFlops supercomputer at Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics
On Saturday 31 May 2008 01:59:56 Andre Felipe Machado wrote:
> The new success story draft version  is ready for review.
Well done: the new draft is much improved, in my opinion.
> There is a new title proposal.
My view is still that a short title is better. So, I would vote for
either "Debian GNU/Linux powers Max Planck Institute supercomputer"
or "Debian GNU/Linux powers Max Planck Institute 32.8 TFlops supercomputer".
> You may add new ones and call for discussion at debian-publicity list.
> Also, the text was reorganized, paragraphs moved and sections created
> for clear view.
> These modifications must be evaluated.
I think it is still too long. My view is that the main text (without the
About ATLAS and About Debian sections) should be one page and a single
Given that this is a "success story" I am not sure what value the "Debian is
continuously evolving" section adds. I would prefer to delete it.
If anything more is needed it should be a summary -- what conclusions should
people draw from this success story. Something about the wide range of
scalability for Debian, from tiny embedded systems to massive supercomputers,
and the usefulness of community contributed tools like FAI. But I think that
can actually be covered quite well in the rest of the document.
In order to better explain what I mean, have included, below, a (text-only)
version of my suggested re-arrangement and edits. I have not made these
changes in the Wiki because I think they are too large to make without prior
discussion here. [By the way, I *have* made some small changes in the Wiki
where I think it improves the readability of the existing text.]
Debian GNU/Linux powers Max Planck Institute supercomputer
A team of scientists at the Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics
have created Germany's 4th largest supercomputer by using Debian GNU/Linux.
The Observational Relativity and Cosmology Research Group is a team of
scientists working at the Hannover Branch of the Max Planck Institute for
Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute) in Hannover, Germany. Their
goal is the direct detection of gravitational waves, which were first
predicted by Albert Einstein. They are working with the friends and
colleagues within the LIGO Scientific Community and VIRGO.
The massive computing effort necessary for this research is provided by a
Debian GNU / Linux cluster of 1342 nodes called ATLAS. Using 10+ TB RAM,
approximately 1.3 PB storage and a special network able to transfer almost 4
days worth of DVD movies each second, the cluster achieves a measured
performance of 32.8 TFlops. This performance places the ATLAS Debian GNU /
Linux supercomputer at 4th place in Germany, 11th in Europe and 34th
worldwide, at a cost of EUR 1.8m (~ US$ 2.8m).
The ATLAS Debian GNU / Linux cluster was designed, built and has been managed
by Dr Henning Fehrmann and Dr Carsten Aulbert, who have been using Debian
GNU / Linux for years. ATLAS has smaller brother and sister systems in
Potsdam, Germany: "Merlin" (1.3 Tflops) and "Morgane" (6 TFlops) -- also
running Debian GNU / Linux and managed by Dr. Steffen Grunewald for many
years; "the experience with them had been very, very good", according to Dr.
"Thomas Lange's FAI package is extremely useful for automatic deployment of
Debian [GNU / Linux]. For example, without much tweaking and using only two
hosts, we were able to reinstall the cluster in about 2.5 hours and were only
limited by those two servers' network connection.", said Dr. Aulbert. Dr.
Grunewald added, "FAI with its class model was a major breakthrough, in
readability, functionality, and maintainability. There's no way back now."
Beyond FAI, there are other useful tools for massive scale installation,
deployment and management of Debian GNU / Linux machines for various
scenarios. "Debian features an extremely large set of packages, making it
THE distro of choice for keeping us out of the hassle to package needed
software ourselves", explained Dr. Aulbert.
As additional benefits of using Debian GNU / Linux, he cited:
* the simplicity of creating own packages
* how repositories can be set-up easily (using the reprepro package)
* using clean build environments (pbuilder and similar packages)
* and, of course, the superb packaging infrastructure in general
(dpkg, apt, aptitude, synaptic and many useful APT tools)
By using Debian GNU / Linux at its clusters, the Observational Relativity and
Cosmology Research Group reduced the amount of work needed on the hardware
and software infrastructure, compared to other scientific clusters running on
other distributions, allowing them to focus on their objective of detecting
About the ATLAS cluster
The ATLAS cluster, linpack measured 32.8 TFlops and a theoretical peak of
about 50 TFlops, consists of 1342 Supermicro computer nodes (Intel Xeon 3220
quad-cores 2,4 GHz, 8 GB RAM, 500 GB Hitachi HDD, IPMI remote management)
along with 31 data servers (2x Intel Xeon E5345 2,33 GHz, 16 GB RAM, Areca
1261ML, 16x750 GB Hitachi HDD) plus 4 similar head nodes with 4 x 750 GB HDD.
Those are all running Debian GNU / Linux 4.0 Etch with a few modifications
like custom kernel and Condor queuing system. Additional storage space is
supplied by 13 Sun Fire X4500 running Solaris 10. The system was built from
off-the-shelf computers from a German company, Pyramid Computer GmbH.
One of the many special hardware components they have is the network from
Woven Systems which is a hierarchical fully non-blocking network. The EFX
1000 core switch features 144 10 Gb/s CX4 ports and connects currently to 32
TRX100 edge switches which feature 48 1 Gb/s ports and 4x10 Gb/s uplinks,
reaching 2880 Gb/s. Also their Sun Fire X4500 are directly connected to the
According to Dr. Grunewald, the Merlin Debian GNU / Linux Beowulf 180 node
cluster (launched in 2002) initially ran on a rpm based distribution, but in
2004 migrated to Debian GNU / Linux after the rpm distro vendor changed its
licencing model. The total computing power of the 360 CPU cores has been
estimated to be more than 1.3 Tflops peak; the data storage capacity is about
20 TB mirrored.
The Morgane Debian GNU / Linux Beowulf cluster, consisting of 615 compute
nodes, 15 storage nodes, and some head nodes, launched in December 2006. The
total computing power of the 1230 CPU cores has been estimated to be more
than 6 Tflops peak, the data storage capacity is about 100 TB.
About the Debian Project
Debian GNU / Linux is one of the free libre operating systems (GNU/Linux,
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packages on 15 hardware platforms, from cell phones and network devices to
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Debian's dedication to Free Libre Open Source Software, its constitutional
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